On this page, we have gathered research on the 22 July terror attacks and their long-term impacts, and present key publications on right-wing violence and terrorism.
- Introduction: the long-term impacts of attacks - the case of the July 22, 2011 attacks in Norway by Tore Bjørgo and Anders Ravik Jupskås
- Breivik’s long shadow? The impact of the July 22, 2011 attacks on the Modus Operandi of extreme-right lone actor terrorists by Graham Macklin and Tore Bjørgo
- Monster or hero? Far-right responses to Anders Behring Breivik and the July 22, 2011 terrorist attacks by Lars Erik Berntzen and Jacob Aasland Ravndal
- Consensus or conflict? A survey analysis of how Norwegians understand the July 22 2011 attacks ten years later by Anders Ravik Jupskås and Øyvind Solheim
- The term ‘lone wolf’ and its alternatives: patterns in public and academic use from 2000 to 2020 by Lars Erik Berntzen and Tore Bjørgo
A far-right extremist killed 77 people in Norway. A decade on, 'the hatred is still out there' but attacker's influence is seen as low
Jacob Aasland Ravndal, CNN, 22 July 2021
Anders Ravik Jupskås, LA RAZÓN, 22 July 2021
Anders Ravik Jupskås, La Vanguardia, 22 July 2021
Anders Ravik Jupskås, Le Monde, 21 July 2021
Anders Ravik Jupskås, la Repubblica, 15 July 2021.
Anders Ravik Jupskås, Le Monde, 15 July 2021.
Anders Ravik Jupskås, Sciencenorway.no, 13 June 2021
Anders Ravik Jupskås, Jacob Aasland Ravndal and Tore Bjørgo, Sciencenorway.no, 5 June 2020
Lars Erik Berntzen, UK ReOrient Podcast, 2020
Jacob Aasland Ravndal, Foreign Policy, 16 March 2019
Jacob Aasland Ravndal, VOX-Pol Blog, 28 October 2014
For more interviews in Norwegian, see the Norwegian resource page on 22 July
How do Norwegian interpret July 22 a decade after. Anders Ravik Jupskås and Øyvind Bugge Solheim, 16 Jul 2021
Do not let the fear of terror rule. Other dangers threaten democracy. Jacob Aasland Ravndal, 13 Jul 2021
Why did Muslims become the new enemy in Norway and Europe? Katrine Fangen, 9 Jul 2021
- Violent extremism is not a uniform phenomenon: the key differences in prevention of left-wing, right-wing, and Islamist extremism, Rune Ellefsen and Jan Jämte, 8 Jan 2021
- Greece: more far-right violence than any other country in Western Europe, Anders Ravik Jupskås and Maik Fielitz, 7 Sep 2020
Germany: the European hotspot of far right violence, Anders Ravik Jupskås and Daniel Koehler, 27 Jul 2020
Far right violence in Spain is more organized and against political opponents than in the rest of Western Europe, Anders Ravik Jupskås and Carles Viñas, 25 Jun 2020
- How right-wing violence in Western Europe changed in 2019, Anders Jupskås, Jacob Ravndal and Tore Bjørgo, 4 Jun 2020
Far-right lone actor terror attack in Hanau: a mirror of contemporary German politics? Francis O'Connor, 21 Feb 2020
What does the Halle attack say about far-right terrorism in Germany? Daniel Koehler, 10 Oct 2019
Read more posts on the RightNow! blog, which publishes commentaries, analyses and reflections by C-REX researchers and affiliates on topics related to contemporary far-right politics.
On our Norwegian pages we present a broader range of interviews, podcasts and other Norwegian media interventions and resources, for six topics related to the 22 July attacks: terrorism and violence, anti-Islam, online radicalisation, memory politics, right-wing extremism in Norway, and threats against politicians.
Receive information about research and events at C-REX
On the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the 22 July terrorist attacks, C-REX hosted a digital conference on 10 June 2021. Leading C-REX researchers and guests discussed research findings and knowledge gaps.
Conference recordings available in Norwegian
Live briefing: Reflections on the Past and Contemporary Right-Wing Extremism Landscape
On September 7, 2021, the International Centre for Counter-Terrorism – The Hague (ICCT) hosted an online Live Briefing on the 10th Anniversary of the 2011 Norway Attacks. The recording of this event is available to watch online.
Terrorism can be defined as the deliberate creation and exploitation of fear through violence or the threat of violence in the pursuit of political change.
Definitions from the compendium Knowing what’s (far) right
Extreme-right violence is often the product of inherently violent ideology and aesthetics, not only idealizing and normalizing violent behavior, but also attracting apolitical people who are drawn towards violence.
Research on right-wing violence and terrorism
- From Bombs to Books, and Back Again? Mapping Strategies of Right-Wing Revolutionary Resistance , Jacob Aasland Ravndal, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 2021
- The Christchurch Attacks: Livestream Terror in the Viral Video Age, Graham Macklin, CTC Sentinel, 2019
The El Paso Terrorist Attack: The Chain Reaction of Global Right-Wing Terror, Graham Macklin, CTC Sentinel, 2019
- The Evolution of Extreme-Right Terrorism and Efforts to Counter It in the United Kingdom, Graham Macklin, CTC Sentinel, 2019
Extreme-Right Violence and Terrorism: Concepts, Patterns, and Responses,Tore Bjørgo og Jacob Ravndal, ICCT Policy Brief, 2019
- Special Issue of Perspectives on Terrorism on the Modus Operandi of right-wing extremists, co-edited by Jacob Aasland Ravndal and Tore Bjørgo, 2019
Right-Wing Terrorism and Violence in Western Europe: A Comparative Analysis, PhD thesis by Jacob Ravndal, 2017
The Dynamics of a Terrorist Targeting Process: Anders B. Breivik and the 22 July Attacks in Norway, Cato Hemmingby and Tore Bjørgo, Palgrave, 2016
Performing Justice, Coping with Trauma: The trial against Anders Breivik, 2012, Tore Bjørgo, Beatrice de Graaf, Liesbeth van der Heide, Cato Hemmingby and Daan Weggemans, book chapter, 2016
- “Glory to Breivik!”: The Russian Far Right and the 2011 Norway Attacks, Johannes Due Enstad, Terrorism and Political Violence, 2015
- Norwegian research on the prevention of radicalisation and violent extremism: A status of knowledge, Tore Bjørgo and Ingvild Magnæs Gjelsvik, PHS Forskning, 2015
- The collective nature of lone wolf terrorism: Anders Behring Breivik and the anti-Islamic social movement, Lars Erik Berntzen and Sveinung Sandberg, Terrorism and Political Violence, 2014
- Stories in action: The cultural influences of school shootings on the terrorist attacks in Norway, Sveinung Sandberg, Atti Oksanen, Lars Erik Berntzen, and Tomi Kiilakoski, Critical Studies on Terrorism, 2014
Strategies for Preventing Terrorism, Tore Bjørgo, Palgrave Macmillan, 2013
Anders Behring Breivik’s use of the Internet and social media, Jacob Aasland Ravndal, Journal EXIT-Deutschland, 2013
- Right-Wing Extremism in Norway: Prevention and Intervention, Katrine Fangen and Yngve Carlsson, country analysis, 2013
A Post-Trial Profile of Anders Behring Breivik, Jacob Aasland Ravndal, CTC Sentinel, 2012