Violence and hate crime
Mapping and explaining patterns of extreme right violence and hate crime, including harassment, treats and hate speech
Image: Cato Hemmingby
One of the defining characteristics of extremism in general and right-wing extremism in particular is that it justifies the use of violence – now or in the future.
Right-wing extremist movements tend to point out two main categories of enemies toward whom violence, threats and harassment may be justified: the external enemy (e.g. Jews, Islam/Muslims, Communism), and the internal enemy (e.g. national or racial “traitors”, political opponents, the Establishment, multiculturalists, or the mainstream media). Sometimes such ideas materializes into actual violent attacks but harassment, threats and hate speech is far more common.
Hate crime is a concept that has been included in the penal code in many countries but often using rather different definitions, making comparison difficult. Generally, it is understood as crimes motivated by hatred or negative opinions against certain categories of people.
- What is the distribution of right-wing extremist violence across countries and over time?
- What is the modus operandi of contemporary perpetrators of right-wing extremist terrorism?
- What restrains individuals and groups holding militant and hateful view from carrying out actual violence?
- What is the impact and consequences of extremist violence, treats or hateful harassment on those targeted?
- Right-wing terrorism and modus operandi
- Terrorists and targets
- Vigilantism against migrant and minorities
- Right-wing extremist violence in Russia
- Anti-Semitic violence in Europe
- Researching the Far Right - Theory, Method and Practice edited by Stephen D. Ashe, Joel Busher, Graham Macklin and Aaron Winter
- The role of Muslim identity in predicting violent behavioural intentions to defend Muslims, by Milan Obaidi, Gulnaz Anjum, Joanna Lindström, Robin Bergh, Elif Celebi, Merve Baykal
- Group membership and radicalization: A cross-national investigation of collective self-esteem underlying extremism, by Simon Ozer, Milan Obaidi, Stefan Pfattheicher
- Discursive Turns and Critical Junctures: Debating Citizenship after the Charlie Hebdo attacks by Donatella della Porta, Pietro Castelli Gattinara, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis and Andrea Felicetti
- Fear-triggering effects of terrorism threats: Cross-country comparison in a terrorism news scenario experiment by Anna Makkonena, Atte Oksanena, Shana Kushner Gadarian, Francisco Herreros, Marte Slagsvold Winsvold, Øyvind Bugge Solheim, Bernard Enjolras and Kari Steen-Johnsen
- Lessons from crime prevention in preventing violent extremism by police by Tore Bjørgo, with contributions from Quinta Smit of the RAN Centre of Excellence
- Understanding violent extremism in the 21st century: The (re)emerging role of relative deprivation by Jonas Kunst and Milan Obaidi
- Extreme-Right Violence and Terrorism: Concepts, Patterns, and Responses by Tore Bjørgo and Jacob Aasland Ravndal
- Metajournalism and Media Critique: Responses to “Extremist Voices” in the Digitalized News Landscape by Anna Grøndahl Larsen and Tine Ustad Figenschou
- The Christchurch Attacks: Livestream Terror in the Viral Video Age. Graham Macklin writes about the Christchurch attack in CTC Sentinel
- The El Paso Terrorist Attack: The Chain Reaction of Global Right-Wing Terror by Graham Macklin
- The Evolution of Extreme-Right Terrorism and Efforts to Counter It in the United Kingdom by Graham Macklin
- Terrorism from the Extreme Right by Jacob Aasland Ravndal and Tore Bjørgo (eds.)
- The internal brakes on violent escalation: a typology
by Joel Busher, Donald Holbrook and Graham Macklin
- Hate Crime Policy: Global Controversies and the Norwegian Approach by Nina Høy-Petersen and Katrine Fangen
- Simply Insane? Attributing Terrorism to Mental Illness (Versus Ideology) Affects Mental Representations of Race
by Jonas Kunst, Lisa S. Myhren and Ivuoma N. Onyeador
- Right-wing Terrorism and Militancy in the Nordic Countries: A Comparative Case Study by Jacob Aasland Ravndal
- Explaining right-wing terrorism and violence in Western Europe: Grievances, opportunities and polarisation by Jacob Aasland Ravndal
- Exploring the Continuum of Lethality: Militant Islamists' Targeting Preferences in Europe by Cato Hemmingby
- Preferences for group dominance track and mediate the effects of macro-level social inequality and violence across societies
by Jonas Kunst, Ronald Fischer, Jim Sidanius and Lotte Thomsen
- Radicalization and foreign fighters in the Kosovo context: An analysis of international media coverage of the phenomena
by Rita Augestad Knudsen, C-REX and NUPI
- Right-Wing Terrorism and Violence in Western Europe: Introducing the RTV Dataset by Jacob Aasland Ravndal
- Disruptive Media Events. Managing mediated dissent in the aftermath of terror by Tine Ustad Figenschou and Kjersti Thorbjørnsrud
- Performing Justice, Coping with Trauma: The Trial of Anders Breivik, 2012 by Tore Bjørgo, Beatrice de Graaf, E.J. Van der Heide, Cato Hemmingby and Daan Weggemans
- The Dynamics of a Terrorist Targeting Process. Anders B. Breivik and the 22 July Attacks in Norway by Cato Hemmingby and Tore Bjørgo
- Thugs or Terrorists? A Typology of Right-Wing Terrorism and Violence in Western Europe by Jacob Aasland Ravndal
- Terrorism, Communication and New Media: Explaining Radicalization in the Digital Age by Cristina Archetti
- Bridging the gap between ancient and modern in the study of religion and violence in India by Torkel Brekke
- “Glory to Breivik!”: The Russian Far Right and the 2011 Norway Attacks by Johannes Due Enstad