Taking a broader view of changes in the international structure during the 1990s, this paper makes the observation that traditional security policies have changed - due to (i) the end of the Cold War and (ii) the strengthening of international institutions. However, varying openness to change makes this process less clear-cut in some countries than in others.

ARENA Working Paper 04/2001 (html)

Helene Sjursen

While the integration of levels of governance has become a commonplace in integration studies, few attempts have been made at actually operationalising what such vertical integration implies. This article is an attempt to fill this lacuna by studying the degree of supranational allegiance among civil servants and how cross-national variation in this field may be accounted for.

ARENA Working Paper 05/2001 (html)

Jarle Trondal

This paper puts the ambitious concept of Union citizenship under scrutiny; it is argued that far from being a panacea for popular compliance, 'citizenship' requires mutual commitments and a common understanding of what the Union project should imply. If fulfilment of constitutional criteria is not achieved, the concept of 'citizenship' may in fact be counter-productive.

ARENA Working Paper 09/2001 (html)

Andreas Føllesdal