Christopher Lord

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Phone + 47 22 85 87 32
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Room 324
Visiting address Sognsveien 68 2nd floor 0855 Oslo
Postal address ARENA - Centre for European Studies P. O. Box 1143 Blindern 0318 Oslo

Academic Interests

Christopher Lord’s main fields of academic interest include the study of democracy, legitimacy and the European Union.

He has done considerable research on questions of legitimacy, democracy and the European Union, and has published extensively on the topic. He has also worked on topics such as the history of British relations to the European Communities, EU foreign policy, political economy of monetary union and political parties in the EU.


Christopher Lord was Professor and Head of Department of Politics at the University of Reading from 2004-2008. Previous positions include Professor of European Politics at the University of Leeds where he held the Jean Monnet Chair in European Politics. Christopher Lord holds a PhD in International Relations from the LSE (1990) and a MA in Philosophy, Politics and Economics from the University of Oxford.


Christopher Lord is leader of the work package “Economic development as segmentation?” of the five-year long EuroDiv project. EuroDiv is financed by the Research Council of Norway’s research initiative ‘Europe in Transition’ (EUROPA). The project will study the crisis and analyse the sustainability and democratic legitimacy of ongoing transformations in Europe. By distinguishing segmentation from the more widely used conception of differentiated integration, integration and disintegration will be analysed simultaneously in order to better understand the present crisis developments.

Lord has a continuing interest in the question of how to conduct a Democratic Audit of the European Union, based on a set of ten democratic indicators. These are presented at the Democratic Audit Website, which aims to provoke discussion about indicators and data sources which might be used to assess how democratic the European Union is. The work on Democratic Audit started under the RECON project.

He participated in the Norwegian Research Council-funded project EuroTrans - The Transformation and Sustainability of the European Political Order.

Furthermore, Christopher Lord chaired the 3rd work-package 'Representation and Institutional Make-up' of the 5-year long ARENA-led and EU Commission funded (€ 5 million) research project RECON – Reconstituting Democracy in Europe (RECON), which had 19 partner universities across Europe.

Tags: Democracy, Legitimacy, Representation, European Parliament, European integration, Institutions, European Union



  • Evas, Tatjana; Liebert, Ulrike & Lord, Christopher (ed.) (2012). Multilayered Representation in the European Union. Parliaments, Courts and the Public Sphere. Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft.
  • Lord, Christopher & Harris, E D (2006). Democracy in the new Europe. Palgrave Macmillan
  • Lord, C. (2004) A Democratic Audit of the European Union, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Lord, C. (1998) Democracy in the European Union, London, UACES.
  • Lord, C., Evas, T. and Liebert, U. (eds) (2012) Multilayered Representation in the European Union: Parliaments, Courts and the Public Sphere, Baden-Baden: Nomos.
  • Lord, C. and Harris, E.D. (2006) Democracy in the new Europe, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Beetham, D. and Lord, C. (1998) Legitimacy and the European Union, London: Longman.
  • Hix, S. and Lord, C. (1997) Political Parties and the European Union, Basingstoke, Macmillan.

Articles and chapters

  • de Wilde, Pieter & Lord, Christopher (2017). Assessing Actually-Existing Trajectories of EU Politicisation, In Pieter de Wilde; Anna Leupold & Henning Schmidtke (ed.),  The Differentiated Politicisation of European Governance.  Routledge.  ISBN 978-1-138-69521-4.  Chapter 7.  s 143 - 161
  • Lord, Christopher (2017). An indirect legitimacy argument for a directly elected European Parliament. European Journal of Political Research.  ISSN 0304-4130. . doi: 10.1111/1475-6765.12204
  • de Wilde, Pieter & Lord, Christopher (2016). Assessing actually-existing trajectories of EU politicisation. West European Politics.  ISSN 0140-2382.  39(1), s 145- 163 . doi: 10.1080/01402382.2015.1081508
  • Leruth, Benjamin & Lord, Christopher (2015). Differentiated integration in the European Union: a concept, a process, a system or a theory? . Journal of European Public Policy.  ISSN 1350-1763.  22(6), s 754- 763
  • Lord, Christopher (2015). The United Kingdom, a once and future (?) non-member state, In Erik Oddvar Eriksen & John Erik Fossum (ed.),  The European Union's non-members: Independence under hegemony?.  Routledge.  ISBN 9781138922457.  Chapter 12.
  • Lord, Christopher (2015). Utopia or dystopia? Towards a normative analysis of differentiated integration . Journal of European Public Policy.  ISSN 1350-1763.  22(6), s 783- 798 . doi: 10.1080/13501763.2015.1020839
  • Lord, Christopher (2014). On the parliamentary control of a reformed monetary union?, In John Erik Fossum & Agustin Jose Menendez (ed.),  The European Union in crises or the European Union as crises?.  ARENA Centre for European Studies.  ISBN 978-82-93137-46-7.  Chapter 14.  s 611 - 637
  • Lord, Christopher (2014). Problems of Compound Representation in the European Union After Lisbon, In François Foret & Yann-Sven Rittelmeyer (ed.),  The European Council and European Governance: The Commanding Heights of the EU.  Routledge.  ISBN 978-0-415-85733-8.  Kapittel 10.  s 167 - 185
  • Lord, Christopher (2013). A European Re-invention of Indirect Legitimacy? , In Dominik Zaum (ed.),  Legitimating International Organizations.  Oxford University Press.  ISBN 978-0-19-967209-7.  Kapittel 9.  s 179 - 195
  • Lord, Christopher (2013). No representation without justification? Appraising standards of justification in European Parliament debates. Journal of European Public Policy.  ISSN 1350-1763.  20(2), s 243- 259 . doi: 10.1080/13501763.2013.746123
  • Lord, Christopher (2013). The European Union: Parliamentary Wasteland or Parliamentary Field?, In John Erik Fossum & Ben Crum (ed.),  Practices of Inter-parliamentary Coordination in International Politics: The European Union and Beyond.  ECPR Press.  ISBN 9781907301308.  Kapittel 14.
  • Lord, Christopher (2013). The democratic legitimacy of codecision. Journal of European Public Policy.  ISSN 1350-1763.  20(7), s 1056- 1073 . doi: 10.1080/13501763.2013.795400
  • Lord, Christopher & Pollak, Johannes (2013). The Pitfalls of Representation as Claims-Making in the European Union. Journal of European Integration.  ISSN 0703-6337.  35(5), s 517- 530 . doi: 10.1080/07036337.2013.799941
  • Lord, Christopher & Pollak, Johannes (2013). Unequal but democratic? Equality according to Karlsruhe. Journal of European Public Policy.  ISSN 1350-1763.  20(2), s 190- 205 . doi: 10.1080/13501763.2013.746116
  • Lord, Christopher & Tamvaki, Dionysia (2013). The politics of justification? Applying the ‘Discourse Quality Index’ to the study of the European Parliament. European Political Science Review.  ISSN 1755-7739.  5(1), s 27- 54 . doi: 10.1017/S1755773911000300
  • Evas, Tatjana; Liebert, Ulrike & Lord, Christopher (2012). Multilayered Representation Across the European Union in Dialogue: Introduction, In Tatjana Evas; Ulrike Liebert & Christopher Lord (ed.),  Multilayered Representation in the European Union. Parliaments, Courts and the Public Sphere.  Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft.  ISBN 978-3-8329-7218-9.  1.  s 11 - 24
  • Lord, Christopher (2012). A Democratic Achievement and not just a Democratic Deficit, In Hübert Zimmermann & Andreas Dür (ed.),  Key Controversies in European Integration.  Palgrave Macmillan.  ISBN 9781137006158.  Chapter.  s 71 - 79
  • Lord, Christopher (2012). A democratic audit framework, In Erik Oddvar Eriksen & John Erik Fossum (ed.),  Rethinking Democracy and the European Union.  Routledge.  ISBN 978-0-415-60557-1.  Chapter 3.  s 39 - 56
  • Lord, Christopher & Pollak, Johannes (2012). Unequal Representation in the European Parliament. A Comment on the Ruling by the German Constitutional Court on the Lisbon Treaty, In Tatjana Evas; Ulrike Liebert & Christopher Lord (ed.),  Multilayered Representation in the European Union. Parliaments, Courts and the Public Sphere.  Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft.  ISBN 978-3-8329-7218-9.  4.  s 59 - 72
  • Lord, Christopher (2011). Legitimate and Democratic? The EU's International Role, In Christopher Hill & Michael Smith (ed.),  International Relations and the European Union.  Oxford University Press.  ISBN 9780199544806.  6.
  • Lord, Christopher (2011). Polecats, Lions and Foxes: Coasian bargaining theory and attempts to legitimate the Union as a constrained form of political power. European Political Science Review.  ISSN 1755-7739.  3(1), s 83- 102 . doi: 10.1017/S1755773910000275
  • Lord, Christopher (2011). The European Parliament and the legitimation of agencification. Journal of European Public Policy.  ISSN 1350-1763.  18(6), s 909- 925 . doi: 10.1080/13501763.2011.593317
  • Lord, Christopher (2011). The Quality of Democracy, In Magdalena Góra & Katarzyna Zielińska (ed.),  Democracy, State and Society. European Integration in Central and Eastern Europe.  Jagiellonian University Press.  ISBN 978-83-233-3208-4.  Chapter.  s 29 - 36
  • Lord, Christopher (2011). The political theory and practice of parliamentary participation in the Common Security and Defence Policy. Journal of European Public Policy.  ISSN 1350-1763.  18(8), s 1133- 1150 . doi: 10.1080/13501763.2011.615202
  • Lord, Christopher (2010). The aggregating function of political parties in EU decision taking . Living Reviews in European Governance.  ISSN 1813-856X.  (3)
  • Lord, Christopher & Pollak, Johannes (2010). Representation and Accountability: Communicating Tubes?. West European Politics.  ISSN 0140-2382.  33(5), s 968- 988 . doi: 10.1080/01402382.2010.486120
  • Lord, Christopher & Pollak, Johannes (2010). The EU's many representative modes: Colliding? Cohering?. Journal of European Public Policy.  ISSN 1350-1763.  17(1), s 117- 136 . doi: 10.1080/13501760903464952
  • Lord, Christopher (2008). Is there a role for parliamentary participation in European security co-ordination?, In Dirk Peters; Wolfgang Wagner & Nicole Deitelhoff (ed.),  The Parliamentary Control of European Security Policy.  ARENA.  Chapter 2.  s 29 - 49
  • Lord, Christopher (2008). Still in Democratic Deficit?. Intereconomics. Review of European Economic Policy.  ISSN 0020-5346.  43(6), s 316- 320 . doi: 10.1007/s10272-008-0266-7
  • Lord, Christopher (2008). Two Constitutionalisms? A Comparison of British and French attempts to legitimise the Constitutional Treaty. Journal of European Public Policy.  ISSN 1350-1763.  15(7), s 1001- 1018
  • Lord, Christopher (2008). Two constitutionalisms? A comparison of British and French government attempts to justify the Constitutional Treaty. Journal of European Public Policy.  ISSN 1350-1763.  15, s 1001- 1018 . doi: 10.1080/13501760802310421
  • Lord, Christopher (2007). Contested Meanings. Democracy Assessment and the European Union. Comparative European Politics.  ISSN 1472-4790.  5(1), s 70- 86
  • Lord, Christopher (2007). Democratic Control of the Council of Ministers. Austrian Journal of Political Science (Oe Z P - Oesterreichische Zeitschrift fuer Politikwissenschaft).  ISSN 1615-5548.  (2), s 125- 138
  • Lord, Christopher (2007). Parliamentary Representation in a decentred Polity, In Beate Kohler-Koch & Berthold Rittberger (ed.),  Debating the Democratic Legitimacy of the European Union.  Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.  ISBN 0742554929.  chapter 6.  s 139 - 156
  • Lord, Christopher (2006). Democracy and the European Union, Matching Means to Standards. Democratization.  ISSN 1351-0347.  13(4), s 668- 684
  • Lord, Christopher (2005). Accountable and Legitimate? The EU's International Role, In C Hill & M Smith (ed.),  International Relations and the European Union.  Oxford University Press.  ISBN 0199273480.  chapter 6.  s 113 - 134
  • Lord, Christopher (2004). Accountable and Legitimate? The EU's International Role, In Carlos Closa & John Erik Fossum (ed.),  Deliberative Constitutional Politics in the EU.  ARENA.  chapter 7.  s 169 - 195
  • Lord, Christopher & Magnette, Paul (2004). E Pluribus Unum? Creative Disagreement about Legitimacy in the EU. Journal of Common Market Studies.  ISSN 0021-9886.  42(1), s 183- 202
  • Lord, Christopher (2003). The European Parliament in the Economic Governance of the European Union. Journal of Common Market Studies.  ISSN 0021-9886.  41(2), s 249- 269
  • Lord, Christopher (2003). The European Parliament. Not a very European Parliament?. Politique Européenne.  ISSN 1623-6297.  (9), s 30- 49
  • Lord, Christopher (2002). Comparing Jaques Delors and Jaques Santer as Presidents of the European Commission. Skill in supranational context. Politics and Policy.  ISSN 1747-1346.  30(2), s 324- 347
  • Lord, Christopher (2002). What Role for Parties in EU Politics?. Journal of European Integration.  ISSN 0703-6337.  30(2), s 39- 52
  • Lord, Christopher (2001). Assessing Democracy in a Contested Polity. Journal of Common Market Studies.  ISSN 0021-9886.  39(4), s 641- 61
  • Lord, Christopher (2001). Democracy and Democratisation in the European Union, In S Bromley (ed.),  Governing the European Union.  Sage Publications.  ISBN 0761954619.  chapter 7.  s 165 - 190
  • Lord, Christopher (2001). Les Partis Politiques au Niveau Européen: Quelle type de Concurrence Imparfaite?, I: Pascal Delwit; E Külachi & Cédric Van de Walle (red.),  Les Fédérations Européennes de Partis, Organisation et Influence.  Université Libre de Bruxelles.  ISBN 280041266-6.  chapter.
  • Lord, Christopher & Beetham, D (2001). Legitimizing the EU: Is there a "Post-parliamentary Basis" for its Legitimation?". Journal of Common Market Studies.  ISSN 0021-9886.  39(3), s 443- 462
  • Lord, Christopher (2000). Le Nouveau Parlement Européen, I: G Grünberg; P Perrineau & C Ysmal (red.),  Le Vote des Quinze.  Presses de la Fondation Nationales des Sciences Politiques.  ISBN 2724608151.  chapter.
  • Lord, Christopher (2000). Lord Cockfield: a European Commissioner as a Political Entrepeneur, In K Theakston (ed.),  Bureaucrats and Leadership.  Macmillan Publishers Ltd..  ISBN 0312226586.  chapter 7.
  • Lord, Christopher & Winn, N (2000). Garbage Cans or Rational Decision? Member Governments, Supranational Actors and the Shaping of the Agenda for the IGC. Current Politics and Economics of Europe.  ISSN 1057-2309.  9(3), s 237- 257
  • Beetham, David & Lord, Christopher (1998). Legitimacy and the European Union, In Albert Weale & N Nentwich (ed.),  Political Theory and the European Union. Legitimacy, Constitutional Choice and Citizenship.  Routledge.  ISBN 0415173132.  chapter 2.  s 15 - 33
  • Lord, Christopher (1998). Britain and the Schuman Plan: a Reinterpretation. Journal of European Integration History.  ISSN 0947-9511.  4(2), s 23- 46

View all works in Cristin

  • Evas, Tatjana; Liebert, Ulrike & Lord, Christopher (ed.) (2012). Multilayered Representation in the European Union. Parliaments, Courts and the Public Sphere. Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft.  ISBN 978-3-8329-7218-9.  260 s.
  • Lord, Christopher & Harris, E D (2006). Democracy in the new Europe. Palgrave Macmillan.  ISBN 9781403913036.  240 s.
  • Lord, Christopher (2004). A Democratic Audit of the European Union. Palgrave Macmillan.  ISBN 0333946308.  264 s.
  • Winn, N & Lord, Christopher (2001). EU Foreign Policy Beyond the Nation State. Palgrave Macmillan.  ISBN 0333699807.  192 s.
  • Levitt, Malcolm H & Lord, Christopher (2000). The Political Economy of Monetary Union. Macmillan Publishers Ltd..  ISBN 0333717104.  277 s.
  • Beetham, D & Lord, Christopher (1998). Political Legitimation and the European Union. Longman.  ISBN 058230489X.  144 s.
  • Lord, Christopher (1998). Democracy in the European Union. UACES.  ISBN 1850758689.  148 s.

View all works in Cristin

  • Lord, Christopher (2016). Brexit, Historical Responsibility and the Legitimacy of Withdrawals from the European Union.
  • Lord, Christopher (2016). Crisis and disintegration: The paradigmatic case of the United Kingdom.
  • Lord, Christopher (2016). Crisis, differentiation, democratic governance, monetary union and Brexit.
  • Lord, Christopher (2016). Debating Brexit.
  • Lord, Christopher (2016). Indirect Legitimacy and the European Parliament.
  • Lord, Christopher (2016). Parliaments, Foreign Policy and Diplomacy.
  • Lord, Christopher (2016). Presentation to DNB Bank on Brexit.
  • Eldholm, Marit; Lord, Christopher; Eriksen, Erik Oddvar & Fossum, John Erik (2015, 01. juli). Britenes fire valg etter Brexit . [Internett].
  • Eriksen, Erik Oddvar; Fossum, John Erik & Lord, Christopher (2015). Is Brexit akin to Independence under Hegemony?.
  • Lord, Christopher (2015). Democracy, Expertise and Power.
  • Lord, Christopher (2015). Externalities and Representation Beyond the State. Lessons from the European Union..
  • Lord, Christopher (2015). Falling out of love With Norway? Norway in the Brexit debate..
  • Lord, Christopher (2015). Norway and Switzerland in the Brexit debate.
  • Lord, Christopher (2015). The European Parliament and the Indirect Legitimacy of the European Union.
  • Lord, Christopher (2015). The United Kingdom and the European Union: Four Futures..
  • Lord, Christopher (2015). Which Parliaments should exercise control over a changing Monetary Union?.
  • Lord, Christopher (2014). A Plague on all their Houses? Neither Majone, nor Føllesdal/Hix, and, perhaps, not even Sabel/Zeitlin.
  • Lord, Christopher (2014). An Indirect Legitimacy Argument for a Directly Elected European Parliament.
  • Lord, Christopher (2014). An Indirect Legitimacy argument for a Directly Elected European Parliament. Paper presented to Pademia Conference, Brussels, 12-13 June 2014.
  • Lord, Christopher (2014). Experiments in Democratic Auditing.
  • Lord, Christopher (2014). Social Justice, Democracy and European Integration.
  • Lord, Christopher (2014). The Legitimacy of Monetary Union. New Challenges..
  • Lord, Christopher (2013). Utopia or Dystopia? Towards a Normative Analysis of Differentiated Integration.
  • Lord, Christopher (2010). Justification during the course of Legislation. The distinctive value added of Parliamentary Representation.
  • Lord, Christopher & Tamvaki, Dionysia (2010). Applying the Discourse Quality Index to European Parliament Debates.
  • Lord, Christopher (2009). On the Intrinsic Value of Representation.
  • Lord, Christopher (2009). The Quality of Representation in the 2004-9 European Parliament.
  • Lord, Christopher (2007). "Parliaments and Security in Europe".
  • Lord, Christopher (2005). "The further develompent of Political Parties in th European Union Arena: Supply or Demand Constrained?".
  • Lord, Christopher (2004). "A Democratic Audit of the European Union".
  • Lord, Christopher (2004). The Convention Method as a tool for more Democracy? A critical Assessment.
  • Lord, Christopher (2003). A Democratic Audit of the European Union.
  • Lord, Christopher (2003). A Democratic Audit of the European Union.
  • Lord, Christopher (2003). Implications of Enlargement for the Community Method.
  • Lord, Christopher (2003). Legitimation Traps and Solutions, Challenges for the Convention on the Future of Europe.
  • Lord, Christopher (2003). Legitimising a Contested Polity. The Case of the EU.
  • Lord, Christopher (2003). "The Case for Parliamentarism in a Decentred Polity".
  • Lord, Christopher (2003). The demos in a multi-state non-state polity. The case of the European Union.
  • Lord, Christopher (2003). Three versions of the "No Democratic Deficit thesis" and why they are all wrong.
  • Lord, Christopher (2002). D'un Europe des Patries vers un Europe des Partis?.
  • Lord, Christopher (2002). Legitimacy and Democracy in the EU.
  • Lord, Christopher (2002). Rethinking the Role of Political Parties in the EU.

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Published July 23, 2010 9:39 AM - Last modified Oct. 23, 2014 2:03 PM