Tore Bjørgo

Bilde av Tore Bjørgo
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Telefon +47-22845850
Postadresse Postboks 1097 Blindern 0317 OSLO


Dr. Tore Bjørgo (born 1958) is professor at the University of Oslo and Director at “Center for Research on Extremism: Right-Wing Extremism, Hate Crime and Political Violence” (C‑REX). He is also Adjunct Professor at the Norwegian Police University College (PHS), where he has been Professor of Police Science (since 2004) and Research Director (2005-2007). Until the end of 2015, he was an adjunct research professor at the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI), where he was a (senior) research fellow from 1998 until 2004. He has also been a research associate at Leiden University (1991-1997). Since 2002, he has been coordinator of the Norwegian Consortium for Research on Terrorism and International Crime. During autumn 2014, he was a Fulbright scholar at John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York. He received his doctoral degree in Social Science from the University of Leiden in 1997 on the basis of a dissertation on racist and right-wing violence in Scandinavia. For his Cand. Polit degree in social anthropology (University of Oslo 1987) he did 10 months of ethnographic fieldwork in 1984, based in Jerusalem.

Academic interests

His research has covered a broad range of topics, often in combinations: political violence/terrorism, racism/right-wing extremism, deradicalisation and disengagement, criminal gangs and subcultures, crime prevention/counter-terrorism, police science, conflicts in the Middle East, and political communication.

The main recurring theme has been violent extremism and terrorism in general, and right-wing extremism in particular, and with a focus on prevention. He is widely recognized as a pioneer in the study of deradicalisation and disengagement from extremist groups. He has (co)edited six volumes, and (co)authored eight other books, mostly with top international publishers (Macmillan, Routledge, and Palgrave). He has also published a large number of articles and research reports.

His books include Racist Violence in Europe (1993), Terror from the Extreme Right (1995), Racist and Right-Wing Violence in Scandinavia (doctoral thesis, 1997), Nation and Race: The Developing Euro-American Racist Subculture (1998), Root Causes of Terrorism (2005), Leaving Terrorism Behind: Individual and Collective Disengagement (2009), Strategies for Preventing Terrorism (2013), The Dynamics of a Terrorist Targeting Process: Anders B. Breivik and the 22 July Attacks in Norway (2015), and Preventing Crime: A Holistic Approach (2016).

He has extensive experience in leading and coordinating national and international research activities and projects, including five major international book projects and a European longitudinal study on “Recruitment, Education and Careers in the Police”. He has been strongly involved in developing and disseminating research-based knowledge and methods for prevention and intervention in relation to xenophobic violence, racist youth groups, delinquent youth gangs, and terrorism and political violence. He has served as an expert advisor to a large number of municipalities, the police, public agencies, NGOs, national governments (in several European countries), and international organizations (EU and UN agencies).

He was the initiator of “project Exit” to promote disengagement from racist groups, a project that was later adopted in Sweden, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland. He has also been a member of national and international expert groups, including the European expert group on violent radicalisation, reporting to the EU Commission (2005 - 2008), and an international expert group to inform and review the United Nations’ evolving counter-terrorism strategy (2005).

Emneord: Ekstremisme, Forebygging, Hatkriminalitet


  • Bjørgo, Tore (2020). Borgervern mot migranter og minoriteter, I: Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi (red.),  Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi årbok 2019.  Novus Forlag.  ISBN 9788270999149.  Kap. xx.  s 139 - 148
  • Bjørgo, Tore & Damen, Marie-Louise (2020). A longitudinal and comparative European study of recruitment, education and careers in the police (RECPOL): How this project can contribute to the development of police science., In Tore Bjørgo & Marie-Louise Damen (ed.),  The Making of a Police Officer: Comparative Perspectives on Police Education and Recruitment..  Routledge.  ISBN 978-0-367-22866-8.  Chapter 1.  s 3 - 17
  • Bjørgo, Tore & Ravndal, Jacob Aasland (2020). Why the Nordic Resistance Movement Restrains Its Use of Violence. Perspectives on Terrorism.  ISSN 2334-3745.  14(6), s 37- 48 Fulltekst i vitenarkiv.
  • Busher, Joel & Bjørgo, Tore (2020). Restraint in Terrorist Groups and Radical Milieus: Towards a Research Agenda. Perspectives on Terrorism.  ISSN 2334-3745.  14(6), s 2- 12 Vis sammendrag
  • Damen, Marie-Louise & Bjørgo, Tore (2020). Selecting and shaping police students in Europe: Main findings and discussion., In Tore Bjørgo & Marie-Louise Damen (ed.),  The Making of a Police Officer: Comparative Perspectives on Police Education and Recruitment..  Routledge.  ISBN 978-0-367-22866-8.  Chapter 11.  s 229 - 240
  • Hansen, David & Bjørgo, Tore (2020). Extremist Offender Management in Norway, In Rajan Basra & Peter Neumann (ed.),  Extremist Offender Management in Europe: Country Reports.  ICSR, King's College London.  Chapter 8.  s 65 - 76
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2019). Preventing organised crime originating from outlaw motorcycle clubs. Trends in Organized Crime.  ISSN 1084-4791.  22(1), s 84- 122 . doi: 10.1007/s12117-017-9322-7
  • Bjørgo, Tore & Gjelsvik, Ingvild Magnæs (2019). Sheep in wolf’s clothing?: The taming of the Soldiers of Odin in Norway, In Tore Bjørgo & Miroslav Mareš (ed.),  Vigilantism against Migrants and Minorities.  Routledge.  ISBN 978-1-138-49380-3.  Chapter 16.  s 257 - 271 Fulltekst i vitenarkiv. Vis sammendrag
  • Bjørgo, Tore & Mareš, Miroslav (2019). Comparative perspectives on vigilantism against migrants and minorities, In Tore Bjørgo & Miroslav Mareš (ed.),  Vigilantism against Migrants and Minorities.  Routledge.  ISBN 978-1-138-49380-3.  Chapter 19.  s 305 - 334
  • Gjelsvik, Ingvild Magnæs & Bjørgo, Tore (2019). Med flere tanker i hodet samtidig: Politiets forebyggende arbeid mot radikalisering og voldelig ekstremisme., I: Stian Lid & Geir Heierstad (red.),  Forebygging av radikalisering og voldelig ekstremisme. Norske handlemåter i møtet med terror.  Gyldendal Akademisk.  ISBN 9788205518346.  Kapittel 6.  s 133 - 151
  • Mareš, Miroslav & Bjørgo, Tore (2019). Vigilantism against migrants and minorities: Concepts and goals of current research, In Tore Bjørgo & Miroslav Mareš (ed.),  Vigilantism against Migrants and Minorities.  Routledge.  ISBN 978-1-138-49380-3.  Chapter 1.  s 1 - 30 Fulltekst i vitenarkiv.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2018). Disengagement from Terrorism, In Gwynyth Øverland; Arnfinn J. Andersen; Kristin Engh Førde; Kjetil Grødum & Joseph Salomonsen (ed.),  Violent Extremism in the 21st Century: International Perspectives.  Cambridge Scholars Publishing.  ISBN 1-5275-1580-X.  Part 1, Chapter 1.  s 2 - 14
  • Bjørgo, Tore & Silke, Andrew (2018). Root Causes of Terrorism, In Andrew Silke (ed.),  Routledge Handbook on Terrorism and Counterterrorism.  Routledge.  ISBN 978-1-13-881908-5.  Chapter 5.  s 57 - 66
  • Hemmingby, Cato & Bjørgo, Tore (2018). Terrorist target selection: The case of Anders Behring Breivik. Perspectives on Terrorism.  ISSN 2334-3745.  12(6), s 164- 176 Fulltekst i vitenarkiv.
  • Ravndal, Jacob Aasland & Bjørgo, Tore (2018). Investigating Terrorism from the Extreme Right: A Review of Past and Present Research. Perspectives on Terrorism.  ISSN 2334-3745.  7(6), s 5- 22 Fulltekst i vitenarkiv.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2016). Counter-terrorism as crime prevention: a holistic approach. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression.  ISSN 1943-4472.  8(1), s 25- 44 . doi: 10.1080/19434472.2015.1108352 Vis sammendrag

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  • Bjørgo, Tore & Damen, Marie-Louise (ed.) (2020). The Making of a Police Officer: Comparative Perspectives on Police Education and Recruitment.. Routledge.  ISBN 978-0-367-22866-8.  248 s.
  • Bjørgo, Tore & Mareš, Miroslav (ed.) (2019). Vigilantism against Migrants and Minorities. Routledge.  ISBN 978-1-138-49380-3.  342 s.

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  • Bjørgo, Tore (2021). Book Note on Trottier, Daniel; Rashid Gabdulhakov & Qian Huang (2020) Introducing Vigilant Audiences. Journal of Peace Research.  ISSN 0022-3433.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2020). Challenges and possibilities for Preventing Lone Actor Mass Shootings.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2020). Cut and Paste of Best Practices? Requirements for successful multiagency collaboration against violent extremism.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2020). De-radicalisation, disengagement and reintegration of former extremists.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2020). Digitalt foredrag om trusler mot muslimer og forebyggende tiltak.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2020). Dimensions of change in extremist careers.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2020). Foredrag om høyreekstremisme.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2020, 11. juli). Hva får unge mennesker til å gå inn i voldelige ekstremistgrupper? Og hva gjør at noen kommer seg ut og videre i livet?. [Radio].  Sommer i P2.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2020). Høyreekstremisme og vold.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2020). Innspill om forebygging på kommunalt nivå.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2020, 08. februar). Om "avradikalisering" og reintegrering av tidligere ekstremister. [Radio].  NRK Verdibørsen.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2020). Om forebyggende innsatser i kommunene.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2020). Trender i høyreekstrem terrorisme.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2020). Trends in Far-Right Violence and Terrorism.
  • Bjørgo, Tore & Munden, Hanna Paalgard (2020). What explains why people join and leave far-right groups?, In Anders Ravik Jupskås & Eviane Leidig (ed.),  Knowing what’s (far) right. A compendium.  C-REX Center for Research on Extremism, UiO.  Kap. 19.  s 59 - 61
  • Bjørgo, Tore & Smit, Quinta (2020). Lessons from crime prevention in preventing violent extremism by police. RAN Issue Paper.  s 1- 13 Vis sammendrag
  • Haugstvedt, Håvard & Bjørgo, Tore (2020). What can democracies do to prevent extremist violence?, In Anders Ravik Jupskås & Eviane Leidig (ed.),  Knowing what’s (far) right. A compendium.  C-REX Center for Research on Extremism, UiO.  Part II.  s 68 - 70
  • Jupskås, Anders Ravik & Bjørgo, Tore (2020). 22. juli-angrepet: Fra avvik til vendepunkt for utviklingen av høyreekstrem terror. Aftenposten (morgenutg. : trykt utg.).  ISSN 0804-3116.
  • Ravndal, Jacob Aasland; Lygren, Sofia; Jupskås, Anders Ravik & Bjørgo, Tore (2020). RTV Trend Report 2020: Right-Wing Terrorism and Violence in Western Europe, 1990 - 2019.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2019). Assessing Extremist Careers and Exit Processes: A Multi-Dimensional Approach.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2019). Assessing Extremist Careers: A Multi-Dimensional Approach.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2019). Borgervern mot migranter og minoriteter.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2019). Changes in right-wing extremism in Norway.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2019). Comparative perspectives on vigilantism against migrants and minorities.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2019). Endringer i ekstremistiske karrierer.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2019). Five Dimensions of Change in Extremist Careers.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2019). Forebygging av kriminalitet - en helhetlig modell relatert til voldelig ekstremisme.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2019). Hva er høyreekstremisme?.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2019). Høyreekstrem vold og terror.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2019). Høyreekstrem vold og terrorisme: Mønstre, forebygging og ungdommenes mulige roller.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2019). Høyreekstremisme og høyreekstrem vold og terror.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2019). Høyreekstremisme, vold og terror.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2019). Høyreekstremisme, vold og terror: Begreper og mønstre.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2019). Høyreekstremisme, vold og terror: Begreper, mønstre og forebygging.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2019). Preventing Crime: A holistic approach.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2019). RTV Trend Report 2020: Right Wing Terrorism and Violence in Western Europe, 1990 – 2019. Who are the bad guys? What are they doing? What should be preventive responses by police?.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2019). Right-Wing Extremism and Violence: Concepts, trends and responses.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2019). Right-Wing Extremism in Norway.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2019). Right-wing extremist terrorism and violence: Concepts, patterns and responses.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2019). Sheep in Wolf’s Clothing? The Taming of the Soldiers of Odin in Norway.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2019). Taking the law into one’s own hands? On the nature, organization and rationale of vigilantism against Migrants and Minorities in Europe. Right Now!.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2019). Terrorism from the Extreme Right.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2019). The emergence and decline of vigilantism against migrants and minorities.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2019). The re-emergence of right-wing extremism, violence and terrorism.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2019). Vigilantism against Migrants and Minorities.
  • Bjørgo, Tore & Ravndal, Jacob Aasland (2019). Extreme-Right Violence and Terrorism: Concepts, Patterns,and Responses. ICCT Research paper.  ISSN 2468-0494. . doi: 10.19165/2019.1.08 Vis sammendrag
  • Bjørgo, Tore; Solhjell, Randi & Carlsson, Yngve (2019). Practises in Interagency Collaboration against Violent Extremism at the City Level (Panel on "Nordic Multiagency Approaches to Handling Extremism").
  • Hemmingby, Cato & Bjørgo, Tore (2019). Anders B. Breivik and the 22 July attacks.
  • Baaken, Till; Becker, Reiner; Bjørgo, Tore; Kiefer, Michael; Korn, Judy; Mücke, Thomas; Ruf, Maximilian & Walkenhorst, Dennis (2018). Herausforderung Deradikalisierung: Einsichten aus Wissenschaft und Praxis (Rapport-Reihe Gesellschaft Extrem).
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2018). Høyreekstremisme er ikke lenger et ungdomsproblem, miljøene består nesten utelukkende av voksne.  ISSN 1891-635X.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (red.) (2018). Høyreekstremisme i Norge: Utviklingstrekk, konspirasjonsteorier og forebyggingsstrategier. PHS Forskning. 4.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2018). Introduksjon til rapporten, I: Tore Bjørgo (red.),  Høyreekstremisme i Norge: Utviklingstrekk, konspirasjonsteorier og forebyggingsstrategier.  Politihøgskolen.  ISBN 978-82-7808-138-9.  Kapittel 1.  s 11 - 23
  • Bjørgo, Tore & Gjelsvik, Ingvild Magnæs (2018). Utvikling og utbredelse av høyreekstremisme i Norge, I: Tore Bjørgo (red.),  Høyreekstremisme i Norge: Utviklingstrekk, konspirasjonsteorier og forebyggingsstrategier.  Politihøgskolen.  ISBN 978-82-7808-138-9.  Kapittel 2.  s 27 - 144
  • Bjørgo, Tore & Silkoset, Emilie (2018). Threats and threatening approaches to politicians: A survey of Norwegian parliamentarians and cabinet ministers. PHS Forskning. 5.
  • Christensen, Tina Wilchen & Bjørgo, Tore (2018). Hvordan håndtere hjemvendte fremmedkrigere og andre syriafarere? Tiltak for ivaretakelse og oppfølging.
  • Gjelsvik, Ingvild Magnæs & Bjørgo, Tore (2018). Politiets virkemidler og rolle i forebygging av høyreekstremisme, I: Tore Bjørgo (red.),  Høyreekstremisme i Norge: Utviklingstrekk, konspirasjonsteorier og forebyggingsstrategier.  Politihøgskolen.  ISBN 978-82-7808-138-9.  Kapittel 5.  s 235 - 276
  • Hemmingby, Cato & Bjørgo, Tore (2018). Breivik and the 22 July case in Norway.
  • Ravndal, Jacob Aasland & Bjørgo, Tore (2018). Hva er problemet med Den nordiske motstandsbevegelsen?. Aftenposten (morgenutg. : trykt utg.).  ISSN 0804-3116.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2017). A holistic approach for preventing terrorism (Keynote).
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2017). Author Meets Critics: "Preventing Crime: A Holistic Approach".
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2017). Exit and Rehabilitation of Former Extremists: How Projects and Interventions Differ.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2017). Exit and rehabilitation of former extremists: Key issues.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2017). Exit and rehabilitation of former extremists: how projects and interventions differ. Keynote talk..
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2017). Forebygging av kriminalitet blant ungdom.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2017). Foredrag om forebygging av kriminalitet.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2017). Høyreekstremisme i Norge 2017.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2017). Høyreekstremisme og hatkriminalitet: Utviklingstrekk og utfordringer (Plenumsforedrag).
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2017). Innledning til debatt om forebygging av radikalisering og ekstremisme.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2017). Preventing terrorism and violent extremism (plenary keynote).
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2017). Recruitment, education and careers in the police: A European longitudinal study, In Detlef Nogala; János Fehérváry; Hans-Gerd Jaschke & Monica den Boer (ed.),  European police science and research bulletin: Police science and practice in Europe.  European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Training.  ISBN 978-92-9211-066-6.  Recruitment....  s 271 - 275
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2017). Trygghet i gatene? Om borgervern.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2017). Vigilantism against Migrants and Minorities (paper and chair).
  • Bjørgo, Tore & Gjelsvik, Ingvild Magnæs (2017). Høyreekstremisme i Norge.
  • Bjørgo, Tore & Gjelsvik, Ingvild Magnæs (2017). Right-Wing extremists and anti-Islam activists in Norway: Constraints against violence. C-REX Working Paper Series. 3.
  • Bjørgo, Tore & Gjelsvik, Ingvild Magnæs (2017). Right-wing extremists and anti-Islam activists in Norway: constraints against violence.
  • Bjørgo, Tore & Silkoset, Emilie (2017). Trusler og trusselhendelser: En spørreundersøkelse blant stortingsrepresentanter og regjeringsmedlemmer. PHS Forskning. 5.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2016). Counter-Terrorism as Crime Prevention.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2016). Forebygging av voldelig ekstremisme.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2016). Framveksten av borgerverngrupper i Europa, Norden og Norge.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2016, 01. februar). Han skulle tas av nynazister. Hovedmannen bak attentatplanen ble en av Tore Bjørgos beste venner.  Aftenposten.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2016). Hva er høyreekstremisme?.
  • Bjørgo, Tore (2016). Høyreekstremisme og hatkriminalitet: Utviklingstrekk og utfordringer.

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Publisert 4. mars 2016 17:53 - Sist endret 11. okt. 2019 10:40