Integration without Democracy? Three Conceptions of European Security Policy in Transformation
The transformation of European Foreign and Security Policy raises important challenges to democratic accountability. This paper assesses the state of democracy in this policy field by exploring three different ways in which the EU polity can be defined and assessing these against the existing literature.
European Foreign and Security Policy is being transformed. This raises potentially important challenges to democratic accountability. But in order to properly assess the state of democracy in this policy field it is necessary first to define the nature of the EU polity. This paper explores three different ways in which this may be done and assesses these against the existing literature. It finds that although the literature predominantly argues that state-like models are not relevant for understanding the EU’s foreign and security policy, the alternatives are surprisingly vaguely formulated. Further, when turning to empirics, it finds that conceiving of EU foreign policy as “state-like” is not as far-fetched as one would perhaps expect.