We investigated neuropsychological functions with standard tests, sleep with actigraphy, and self‐reported mental health in 30 men with KS (Mean age = 36.7 years) compared to 21 controls (Mean age = 36.8 years). Men with KS scored significantly lower on mental speed, attention span, working memory, inhibition, and set‐shifting tests, as well as overall IQ (mean effect size difference Cohen's d = 0.79). Men with KS had significantly longer night wakes, with no differences in other sleep variables (mean d = 0.34). Men with KS reported poorer mental health than controls (mean d = 1.16). Regression analyses showed neuropsychological functions explained variance in some sleep domains for men with KS but not for controls. Neuropsychological functions explained variance in some mental health domains for controls. For men with KS, however, verbal IQ was the only significant predictor of mental health. Altogether, men with KS display problems in neuropsychological functions and mental health but do not appear different from controls on most sleep parameters. Our findings indicate that relations between neuropsychological functions, sleep, and mental health differ between men with KS and controls.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics, 2020, 482-492, doi:10.1002/ajmg.c.31797