Motivation and Personal Dispositions: A Social Psychological Analysis of Goal-Setting in Health Information
Reidar Ommundsen har skrevet kapittelet "Motivation and Personal Dispostions: A Social Psychological Analysies of Goal-setting in Health Information" i Knud S. Larsen, Grigorii Vazov, Krum Krumov, Johann H. Schneider (Eds.): Advances in International Psychology. Research Approaches and Personal Dispositions, Socialization Processes and Organizational Behavior
Health education is a complex responsibility and requires a choice between several goals. In some situations providing information is most useful to people, at other times better health outcomes can be obtained by motivating or instructing recipients. Advocating change in social conditions that obstruct healthy behavior may at times also have utility. The first step in health education is to understand the target population, particularly the personal and situational factors that influence how information is received and acted upon. To reach goals of optimal outcomes health education should take the advice of Kierkegaard. He revealed a deep social psychological insight when he wrote: ”To be a teacher (i.e. health educator) does not mean simply to affirm that such a thing is so, or to deliver a lecture, etc. No, to be a teacher in the right sense is to be a learner. Instruction begins when you, the teacher, learn from the learner, put yourself in his place so that you may understand what he understands and the way he understands it” (Kirkegaard, The Point of View for My Work as an Author; 1848). The chapter presents social psychological concepts and models to guide this exploration and decision process. A central point is that health information designed to be non-moralizing, but still attributing responsibility to people, can prepare the ground for targets and experts working together to build fields of action that sustain healthy behavior.
This book is an effort to bring together scholars from several countries report on their research on topics of common interest in psychology. At the same time the book also provided an opportunity to observe to some extent the zeitgeist of our discipline, and the progress made toward establishing a world psychology. The contributions from Eastern Europe represent new developments in that direction as formerly the topical interests followed largely Soviet psychology.
The chapters also discuss the interests in international psychology. That seems to be a hopeful development as the chapters reflect both theoretical concerns, but also practical information useful to the well-being and integration of society. We hope the book is useful to students and researchers in psychology. As an example of the current interests in international psychology the book could be a useful supplement in a variety of courses including dispositional themes, social psychology and organizational courses.
The chapters are divided into three sections. The first section includes chapters on useful methodological approaches and research on personal dispositions. Since cross-cultural and crossnational psychology is particularly complex it is essential that results are framed by established reliability and validity. In particular the section reports on international research approaches and dispositions starting with a chapter on critical thinking in cross-cultural and cultural psychology. This is followed with data based papers on prejudice, the role of personality in electoral choices, practical advice on how to develop cumulative attitude scales, a social-psychological analysis of goal setting in the effective transmission of health information and related to personal dispositions and motivation. The section concludes with a model for pre-testing self-completion surveys and qualitative interviews aimed at improving psychometric validity.
Section 2 covers issues of socialization and well-being. This section contains seven chapters including a theoretical chapter on socialization process as influenced by culture. Other topics include the evolution of human socialization and cognition, ethnic identification and social discrimination in Kazakhstan, the social group identity of immigrants, a model of motivation for adolescent delinquency, speech as a mediator of cognitive competence in children and the interaction of police with society. Further the section includes a very topical paper on reactions to 9/11 based on content analysis of editorials in prominent newspapers. The section concludes with a chapter on the relationship of men and women as influenced by many factors including the feminist struggle and lawful changes.
Organizational behavior is discussed in section 3. The section reports papers on organizational management and effectiveness, evaluates communication modalities in virtual firms, the role of the marginalization of social groups and effects on employment. The section and book concludes with a discussion on pay satisfaction and a critical evaluation of professional matching based on job competencies. It is our hope the book may be a stimulating bridge toward further international cooperation and a step toward building an inclusive international psychology.