Rorschach variables and dysfunctional attitudes as measures of depressive vulnerability: A 9-year follow-up study of individuals with different histories of major depressive episodes
Forty-six individuals with different histories of major depressive episodes (MDEs) completed the Rorschach (Exner, 2003) and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS; Weissman & Beck, 1978) at 2 assessment points (T1, T2) over a 9-year follow-up. At T1, history of MDE and the Rorschach variable MOR (associated with negative self-image) emerged as significant predictors of number of MDEs over the follow-up. At T2, Rorschach markers of depressive vulnerability and scars were identified (i.e., WSum6, related to illogical thinking; X+%, related to conventional perception and social adjustment; X–%, linked to erroneous judgments; MQ–, associated with impaired social relations; and MOR). Test–retest analyses displayed significant temporal stability in Rorschach variables, with r ranging from .34 to .67 and in the DAS, r = .42. Our findings highlight MDE as a recurrent and serious disorder, number of MDEs as a risk factor for future depressions, and Rorschach variables as markers of depressive vulnerability and scars.
Journal of Personality Assessment, 2013, 95 (1), 26–37