This paper, by Aleksander Bern and Per Gunnar Røe, examines how the use of architectural competitions may change democratic and participatory aspects in urban planning. This is operationalised by focusing on how architectural competitions impact procedural justice. The architectural competition is a process where only certain experts and professionals are included. They briefly outline how architectural competitions and planning ideals have developed over time to provide context crucial to understanding how they are brought together in contemporary planning practices. Based on interviews and document studies they analyse a set of cases from the Fjord City waterfront redevelopment in Oslo, Norway. The cases vary in form and organization, from the open and international competition format to a more limited competition called parallel assignments. They first consider how architectural competitions may create barriers for public participation. Then they consider if there is a way to integrate them in urban planning that may contribute towards procedural justice and a more inclusive planning process.
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