Andreas Kotsadam (UiO): To arbeider om minoritet/majoritet-relasjoner
Andreas Kotsadam (UiO) presenterer resultater fra to eksperiment-baserte arbeider om forholdet mellom majoritet og minoritet i sosiale kontekster.
I det ene arbeidet er temaet kontakthypotesen om etniske relasjoner, og i det andre arbeidet er temaet om kontakt med kvinnelige kolleger fører til mindre kjønnsdiskriminering.
Andreas Kotsadam, UiO
Presentasjonen er basert på resultater fra to relaterte arbeider. I begge arbeidene brukes data fra eksperimenter gjort i Forsvaret.
Paper 1: Does Exposure to Ethnic Minorities Affect Support for Welfare Dualism? Evidence From a Field Experiment
We study the causal effect of exposure to ethnic minorities on majority members' views on immigration, immigrants' work ethic, and support for lower social assistance benefits to immigrants than to natives. We get exogenous variation in exposure to minorities by randomizing soldiers into different rooms during the basic training period for conscripts in the Norwegian Army's North Brigade. Based on contact theory of majority-minority relations, we spell out why the army can be regarded as an ideal contextual setting for exposure to reduce negative views on minorities. We find small and insignificant effects on support for welfare dualism and on views on whether immigration makes Norway a better place to live. We do find a substantial effect on views on immigrants' work ethic, but this effect is only borderline significant when adjusting critical levels for testing multiple outcomes.
Paper 2: Exposure reduces gender discrimination: Evidence from a combined vignette and field experiment
There are significant gender differences in labor market outcomes across the world. Whether such differences are due to discrimination or not is an important question. In particular, is it the case that men are valued higher than women with identical skills, qualities and aspirations? We are able to investigate these questions by studying male and female recruits in the Norwegian Armed Forces. We first run a vignette experiment to test for gender discrimination. Second, we randomly allocate individuals to rooms to study whether exposure to female recruits affect gender discrimination. We find discrimination whereby identical female candidates are valued less than their male counterparts and we find that the discrimination seems to be taste based. By randomly allocating individuals to rooms, we can test whether men randomly assigned to female roommates discriminate less than men randomly assigned to male roommates. We find that allocating men to live and work with women for a period of 8 weeks is enough to remove the total amount of discrimination in the vignette experiment. We further test directly if attitudes are affected and find that men perceive gender equality to be more important if they were randomly exposed to live with women. We conduct experiments in one of the most gender equal countries of the world, but in a setting with a very high share of men. Thereby our results are of interest for understanding the advancement of women in a male dominated setting.