People with immigrant background constitute approx. 30% of Estonia’s population; in the capital Tallinn the proportion is higher (40%). Most are ethnic Russians, the other ethnic groups also use extensively Russian as their mother tongue. This immigrant community was formed during the period of Soviet Union when accelerated forced industrialisation took place based on a largely immigrant labour force.
Immigration, due to French colonial history, isn’t an easy subject: it sometimes appears to be difficult to simply distinguish domestic migration from foreign one (as e.g. Algerians were considered French nationals if born before 1963, etc.), and the law prohibiting racial discrimination is making it illegal to take account of ‘ethnic’ features, ideally placing the French people as a whole, without concerns of differences.
Italy became a country of immigration later than other European countries, and when it happened the Italian society was not prepared to become a country of destination. Sudden, unwanted immigration flows has prevented Italy since the late ’80s to produce a coherent system of norms and laws that would have been able to respond to both Italian residents' the and immigrant population demands, needs and expectations. At the present stage, Italy is facing a dramatic situation with illegal migration coming from the east and south shore of the Mediterranean.
Immigrants and descendants constituted 10, 6 % of Norway’s population in 2009; the share is in the middle of the European range. More than two thirds of the immigrant population is 'non-Western', and it is these groups that receive most attention both from researchers and the general public. EUMARGINS is collecting data about young adults immigrants living in Oslo; the capital with nearly 590 000 inhabitants, and the place in which the majority of Norway’s immigrant population is living. When looking at children and youth, more than one third of the population are non-Western immigrants. EUMARGINS’ focus is however upon young adult immigrants with all kinds of country backgrounds. Fatima, Jengar and Haile are three representatives of the Norwegian context. Follow the links to read their stories.
Barcelona is the capital city of Catalonia, and the urban context of Spain in which EUMARGINS study inclusion and exclusion of young adult immigrants. About 18 % of the population in the city of Barcelona are immigrants. There are as many as 165 different nationalities in the 10 districts and 73 neighbourhoods of Barcelona. Ciutat Vella district, the former medieval city and now the city centre, has the highest percentage of foreigners (40 %).
During the past 20 years, Sweden has had an annual immigration of more than 50,000 people. It is estimated that the number of foreign-born people in Sweden will increase. By the year 2014, about 14.5 per cent will be foreign-born and in 2050 about 18 per cent (SCB 2005). These numbers stress the need for research and better knowledge on integration processes. The Swedish EUMARGINS team is located in Gothenburg, and is interviewing young adult immigrants from different parts and places of the city. See glimpses from the various localities.
The last decade and a half has seen perhaps the most intense phase of migration in Britain’s history with some 2.3 million migrants entering the country, even more than in the mid twentieth century when colonial citizen migrants settled in Britain. These population movements have been distinctly youthful in nature. According to the Home Office figures 43% of registered Eastern European migrant workers in the UK are between 18-24 years of age. The EUMARGINS research team in the United Kingdom are based in London, and interviewing young adults living in this city that is often described as amongst the world’s most ‘super diverse cities’. In fact it is claimed that Britain’s capital is the most culturally diverse city in the world with more languages spoken than in any other global city. Joseph (Congo), Charlynne (Dominica) and 'African Queen' from Ethiopia are among the young adults that have been interviewed in London. Follow the links and read their stories.