Oslo Summer School in Comparative Social Science Studies 2012

Understanding Terrorism and Security in Global Context:
Psychological Roots, Consequences, and Interventions

Lecturer: Professor Fathali M. Moghaddam,
Department of Psychology and Department of Government,
Georgetown University, Washington, USA

Web: fathalimoghaddam.com

Main disciplines: Psychology, Social Psychology, Political Science
Dates: 30 July - 3 August 2012
Course Credits: 10 pts (ECTS)
Limitation: 30 participants

 

Introduction
Radicalization and terrorism have become major problems at national, regional, and global levels, with enormous psychological, cultural, and material consequences for individuals and societies. It is argued that radicalization, terrorism, and security more broadly, can be best understood through an approach that gives highest priority to context (as in the tradition developed by Milgram, Zimbardo, and others), rather than to dispositional characteristics. This thesis is developed using, first, a cultural-evolutionary account of ‘catastrophic evolution’ and ‘sudden contact’ (Moghaddam, 2008a) and, second, a staircase metaphor of the radicalization process (Moghaddam, 2005a). Central to both these levels of analysis is the experience of collective identity threat, which is argued to be prevalent in the contemporary Islamic world (Moghaddam, 2006a) but also shared by some White groups in Western societies, including Norway. ‘Collective identity threat’ is described as part of a New Global Insecurity (Moghaddam, 2010) experienced in association with ‘fractured globalization’ (Moghaddam, 2008b) to varying degrees by many people around the world.

 

Course Objective
The objective of this course is to educate and encourage students to comprehend and critically assess;
(1) the interrelated nature of ‘fractured globalization’, perceived security, and terrorism;
(2) the nature of 21st century terrorism within an appreciation of a broad perspective on security, including ‘realist’, ‘human’, and ‘psychological’ security;
(3) the link between perceived collective identity threats, radicalization, and violent political action;
(4) the necessity of both short-term and long-term interventions to thwart security threats, as suggested by a ‘staircase model’ of radicalization and terrorism;
(5) the alternative policies for managing diversity and intergroup conflicts, including the policies of assimilation, multiculturalism, and omniculturalism.

 

Course Readings
Much of the journal articles and many of the chapters listed below are available on my website: fathalimoghaddam.com

The key social psychological research explored in the course is discussed in Moghaddam, F. M. (2008b). Multiculturalism and intergroup relations. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association Press.

The second essential book for this course is Moghaddam, F. M. (2010). How globalization spurs terrorism. Praeger publishers.

All participants should obtain and read both of the essential books in advance of the course.

 

Course Outline

Lecture 1:
Course overview; My story and how I came to study this topic:

- Personal experiences, education, and life in different countries
- The Iranian revolution, radicalization and collective mobilization in Iran and other Islamic societies
- Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan, the ‘Green Belt’ theory and U.S. supported anti-Soviet activities during the cold-war
- Varieties of ‘home grown terrorism’ in the West, including ‘angry Whites’
- Professional: Engaging the ‘disposition vs. context’ debate;  range of behaviors, from ‘disposition-driven’ to ‘context-driven’; my bias is to emphasize the importance of context (at least in the case of terrorism) and the role of meaning-systems (the role of ‘sacred carriers’ (Moghaddam, 2002)
- The Human genome Project and gene-based explanations
 

The historical context;

- The challenge confronting 21st century psychology and its relation to historical debates about the nature of humankind;
- causal and normative accounts in psychology;
- the ‘two psychologies’ and explanations of individual and collective political violence;
- some preliminary comments and definitions regarding psychology, terrorism, radicalization, and security;
- The role of psychologists in meeting the challenge of terrorism:
- subjectively interpreted values and beliefs often the basis for terrorism
- terrorism intended to bring about changes in behavior and decision-making through specific psychological experiences, terror and helplessness
- terrorism often has harmful psychological consequences
- the link with policies for managing diversity
- The problem of definition; the need to go beyond relativism; a proposed definition: “Terrorism is politically motivated violence, perpetrated by individuals, groups, or state-sponsored agents, intended to bring about feelings of terror and helplessness in a population in order to influence decision-making and to change behavior” Moghaddam (2006a, p. 9)
- “...in practice most reasonable people agree that if it walks like a terrorist, shoots like a terrorist, and explodes bombs like a terrorist, then it is a terrorist”
Moghaddam (2006a, p. 10)
- Misunderstanding terrorism: some overly simplistic (dispositional and contextual)    explanations - terrorism is not explained by *psychopathology   *low education  *economic deprivation  *moral disengagement
- Global population trends, population movements, intergroup contact (practice and research), the Distance Traveled Hypothesis, historic immigrant receiving society, the magnetism of the ‘American Dream’, relative affluence of Muslim immigrants in the USA
- Growth of the Muslim population in Western Europe, perception of ‘closed European societies’, segregation and relative poverty of Muslims in the EU; challenge of ‘European identity’ for Muslims in particular

Readings:

  • Moghaddam, F. M., & Harré, R. (1995). But is it science? Traditional and alternative approaches to the study of social behavior. World Psychology, 1, 47-78.
  • Ch. 1 in Harré, R., & Moghaddam, F. M. (Eds.) (2012). Psychology for the third millennium. London & Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage.
  • Chs. 1-3 in Moghaddam, F. M. (2002). The individual and society: A cultural integration. New York: Worth

 

Lecture 2:
‘Fractured globalization’:

Two Apparently Contradictory Trends: Globalization and Separatism

Trend A:

- The global village and economic unification
- The EU
- NAFTA and other regional trade agreements
- Internationalization of trade, ‘job outsourcing’,
- Movement of goods and labor in the global economy
- Cultural homogeneity...political homogeneity; exportation of democracy and ‘nation building’

Trend B:

Separatism, regionalism, independence movements

These range from ‘normative’ attempts to re-establish ‘local’ national authorities and identities (e.g., Scottish National Parliament...) to ‘non-normative’ attempts to gain independence (e.g., from Russia, Spain) by groups willing to use ‘terrorist’ tactics...to movements not confined to a specific territory (e.g., international terrorist movements)

Trend B primarily centered on the issue of identity? Material resources?


Why globalization in the 21st century is new and why it deserves more attention from psychological science

- The depth and scale of the new inter-connectedness
- The pace and unpredictability of technology driven change (including change related to human-made disasters)
-  Interconnected insecurity
- The ‘Ahmadinejad effect’
- Global economy, local identity 

The deep and pervasive crisis of identity sweeping across Islamic societies around the world. The need for authentic identity (including positiveness and distinctiveness), to answer the questions: What kind of person am I? What kind of group are we?

The two extremes confronting Islamic communities: copying the pioneers and ‘pure Islam’ or copying the West.  The ‘Good Copy Problem’ (Moghaddam, 2006a).


- The micro-macro rule of change and the ‘psychological citizen’

Programs to change the political-economic order must go hand in hand with appropriate changes in the psychological citizen - but here we face the challenge of the macro-micro rule of change, “the maximum speed of change is always faster at the macro level of economic and political systems than it is at the micro level of psychological characteristics of people” (Moghaddam, 2006a, p. 130).

- Global inter-connectedness, mass media, and changing local perceptions and  expectations
- The ‘New Global American Dilemma’ (Moghaddam, 2008a, 2009a)

Readings:

  • Moghaddam, F. M. (2009a). The new global American dilemma and terrorism. Political Psychology, 30, 373-380.
  • Moghaddam, F. M. (2009b). Violent Islamist extremism in global context. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 1, 164-171.
  • Moghaddam, F. M. (2011). The ‘Ahmadinejad effect’ and ‘pre-emptive’ rights and duties. Culture  & Psychology, 17, 297-301.

 

Lecture 3:
Catastrophic evolution:

- Diversity, pre-adaptation, and contact in life forms
- Human evolution, group size, and contact
- Colonialism, industrialization, and changed patterns of contact
- Sudden contact in human populations
- Catastrophic evolution and the acceleration of declining diversity
- The case of human languages, reflecting broader trends in cultures and life-styles

Readings:

  • Moghaddam, F. M. (2006b). Catastrophic evolution, culture, and diversity management policy. Culture & Psychology, 12, 415-434.

 

Lecture 4:
Globalization and security

- Security studies and psychology
- Realist interpretation of security
- ‘Human Security’
- An alternative psychological approach: Dual source theory (Moghaddam, 2010)
- The dual source theory of security: The primacy of collective security
- Accelerated globalization and threats to collective security; varieties of defense mechanisms
- Some reactions to insecurity: Terrorism and torture
- The future of security in an inter-connected world
Case study: Iran and politics in the Islamic world
- Political history of Iran, discovery of oil and democratic movements early in the 20th century, the Pahlavi Shahs, Mohammed Mossadeq (1882-1967) and Ayatollah Khomeini (1902-1989),
- The 1953 coup against democracy and the return of dictatorship under the Shah
- The 1978-79 revolution, the 1979 hostage taking crisis, the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988)
- ‘Hejab’ and other carriers in the revolution, the fundamentalist takeover of the revolutionTwo Shi’a ‘pro-democratic’ traditions, the psychological citizen and dictatorship
- Change and continuity in politics in Iran
- The ‘revolutionary’ constitution, the ‘supreme leader’, clerical/political leadership, The Majlis
- The ‘Shi’a revival’ and politics in the Near East
- Shi’a-Sunni relations in the Near and Middle East, and in the larger world
- Political systems and economic systems more broadly
- Dictatorship and oil-producing countries
- Closed economies and closed political systems
- The complex case of China: The Communist revolution, the ‘cultural revolution’ of the 1960s, the new experiment with open economy but closed political system

Readings:

  • Moghaddam, F. M. (2008d). Religion and Regional Planning: The Case of the Emerging >Shi=a Region=. In N. Slocum-Bradley (Ed.), How identity constructions promote peace or conflict (pp. 165-181). London: Ashgate.
  • Moghaddam, F. M. (2009a). The new global American dilemma and terrorism. Political Psychology, 30, 373-380.
  • Moghaddam, F. M. (2009b). Violent Islamist extremism in global context. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 1, 164-171.

 

Lecture 5:
Major themes in psychological theories and research: Materialism

- The materialist challenge to psychology: Material conditions internal/external to the individual shape psychological experiences generally and intergroup relations specifically
- Economic determinism; Karl Marx (1818-1883) and historical materialism; historical stages, the shaping of consciousness, false consciousness; class as the grouping that ultimately matters, predictions and falsifiability; critics of the closed society and historical inevitability
- Realistic Conflict Theory, Sherif’s summer camp studies (4 stages of evolution)
- Concept and application of superordinate goals
- System Justification Theory (Groups 1&2 will discuss)
- Resource mobilization theory, the nature of resources, the manufacture and shaping of psychological experiences through resource mobilization; inequalities in access to resources
- Evolutionary Psychology/Sociobiology as ‘materialist’
- Social Dominance Theory and the ‘inevitability’ of stratification
- How does the materialist view match the American dream?
- What version of the materialist viewpoint has most merit?

Readings:

  • Chapter 4 in  Moghaddam, F. M. (2008b). Multiculturalism and intergroup relations. Washington, DC.: American Psychological Association Press.

 

Lecture 6:
Major themes in psychological theories and research: Justice

- Major theories primarily concerned with perceived/subjective justice: equity theory; relative deprivation theory

Not ‘How well are Jill and Jack doing?’ as measured by objective criteria, but ‘How well do Jack and Jill think they are doing?’ subjectively

Also,

*Freudian theory    *SIT   *SJT   *SDT

- Major themes: PRIMACY GIVEN TO THE SUBJECTIVE EXPERIENCE OF MATERIAL CONDITIONS; This raises the question of cultural interpretations of material conditions, and the relative rights/duties of groups; rationality; selfishness and human nature; range of options for action (including extremist tactics, such as terrorism)
- The challenge of reductionism; can ‘individualistic’ theories explain intergroup relations?
- Subjective perceptions of justice; formal ‘black-letter’ law and informal ‘commonsense’ law;  procedural vs. distributive justice
- Central to justice are ‘rights and duties’: what are my/you rights? What are my/your duties?
- how do they evolve? Sources?
- universals in rights and duties?
- relationship between rights and duties
- rights and duties in intergroup relations

(Moghaddam & Riley, in Finkel & Moghaddam “The Psychology of Rights and Duties”, 2004)

- Equity theory; explanations of puzzling cases, e.g., mistreated but ‘happy’ partner; over-compensated but ‘unhappy’ individual/group. Two major themes:

i) equilibrium (in the tradition of other psychological theories that emphasize ‘balance’, e.g., Festinger and cognitive dissonance theory)

ii) the justice motive (M. Lerner)  (Link to SJT)

- Complexities and equity theory: justice linked to social roles; justice linked to culture; measurement issues: estimating input/outcome ratios
- Relative deprivation theory; explanations of puzzling cases, e.g., the ‘deprived’ millionaire and the ‘satisfied’ penniless person; frustration of rising expectations prior to revolutions
- egoistical vs. fraternal deprivation
- attempts to identify conditions leading to relative deprivation

some possibilities:

Y possesses X
I want X
I am entitled to X
possible for me to have X
not my fault I don’t have X

- importance of social comparison target (L. Festinger, social comparison theory)
  recent research on relative deprivation and health in societies (Marmot, The Status Syndrome)
- self-manipulation of social comparison target
- leader/elite/majority group influence and social comparison target (link to displaced aggression)
- Complexities and relative deprivation theory: preconditions not effective predictors in many conditions; complexity of contextual factors; complexity of motivations; should we assume rational or irrational motives in RD?
- Final word on cultural variations and ‘human rights and duties’

Readings:

  • Chapter 6 in  Moghaddam, F. M. (2008b). Multiculturalism and intergroup relations. Washington, DC.: American Psychological Association Press.
  • Moghaddam, F. M. & Vuksanovic, V. (1990). Attitudes and behavior toward  human rights across different contexts: The role of right wing authoritarianism, political ideology and religiosity. International Journal of Psychology, 25,  455-474.
  • Moghaddam, F. M. (2000). Toward a cultural theory of human rights. Theory & Psychology, 10, 291-312.
  • Moghaddam, F. M., Slocum, N. R., Finkel, N., Harré, R. (2000). Toward a cultural theory of duties. Culture & Psychology, 6, 275-302.

 

Lecture 7:
Major themes in psychological theories and research: Identity

- Identity in psychology; subjective and objective aspects of identity; individual and collective identity
- The social being, identity, and political systems: making the link between psychological characteristics and societal characteristics; culture and personality literature
- Identity and toleration
- Identity formation and democracy: does democracy require a particular type of identity?
- Varieties of democracy, varieties of identity: taking culture into account
- What are the minimal requirements for democracy? 
- There are differences in the way that democracy is practiced in India, in Switzerland,  in the US, in France, and in many other countries, but are there a key set of commonalities?
- Values and cultural variation: Does a democracy give priority to equality over liberty,
or liberty over equality?
- Looking across cultures, within time; Looking within cultures, across time
- Does democracy require a particular bias in the size and nature of the ‘unit of identity’?
- Cultural variations suggested by individualism-collectivism
- Ethnic, religious, cultural, linguistic mix of a society

Tajfel & Turner - Social Identity Theory - The Minimal Group Paradigm

I am in Group _____

Group X   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9  

Group Y   9   8   7   6   5   4   3   2   1



Group Y   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9  

Group X   9   8   7   6   5   4   3   2   1



Group Y    12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25

Group X    25   24   23   22   21   19   18   17   16   15   14   13   12   11



Group X    12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25

Group Y    25   24   23   22   21   19   18   17   16   15   14   13   12   11


- What is the relationship between individual and collective identity?
- Identity threat, individual and collective

Readings:

  • Chapter 5 in  Moghaddam, F. M. (2008b). Multiculturalism and intergroup relations. Washington, DC.: American Psychological Association Press.

 

Lecture 8:
Major themes in psychological theories and research: Irrationality, From Freud to the Authoritarian Personality.

- Do humans know that they do and why? Do people correctly recognize their group memberships, their group interests, and existing intergroup inequalities? How do people rationalize inequalities? Distinction between rationality and rationalization; behaving rationally and being able to rationalize one’s actions
- Variations on the conspiratorial model: How are intergroup inequalities maintained?
- Key thinkers/models included in this discussion: Freud, Marx, Pareto, Authoritarian Personality, Terror Management Theory, System Justification Theory
- The macro picture: psychological foundations of Marx and Pareto
- Freud’s intergroup psychology
- The Authoritarian Personality (Adorno et al., 1950; Altemeyer, 1988)
- Terror Management Theory (Pyszczynski, Solomon, Greenberg, 2003)
- System Justification Theory (Jost, Banaji & Nosek, 2004)
- Broader implications for intergroup policies?

Readings:

  • Chapter 3 in  Moghaddam, F. M. (2008b). Multiculturalism and intergroup relations. Washington, DC.: American Psychological Association Press.

 

Lecture 9:
The staircase model of radicalization and de-radicalization

- Understanding terrorism through the staircase metaphor (Moghaddam, 2006a):  envisage a narrowing staircase leading to the terrorist act at the top of a building
- The fundamentally important feature of the situation is how people perceive the building, and how they see doors and spaces on each floor
- As individuals climb up the stairway, choices become fewer and fewer, until only the destruction of life is possible 
- On each floor, behavior is characterized by particular psychological processes, but individual and collective identity is a theme that runs through all the way up to the top of the staircase to terrorism
- Identity crisis in Islamic communities 
The staircase and psychological processes:
- Ground floor: Psychological interpretation of material conditions, Perceptions of fairness, Identity (the good copy problem)
- First floor: Perceived options to fight unfair treatment ;centrality of procedural justice (in addition to distributive and interactional); mobility and open circulation (from Plato to Pareto and modern intergroup theories)
- Second floor: Displaced Aggression 
- Third floor: Moral disengagement and engagement
- Fourth floor: Categorical thinking and perceived legitimacy
- Fifth floor: Sidestepping inhibitory mechanisms

From the terrorist’s point of view...

- terrorism is a rational problem solving strategy intended to bring about changes in behavior and decision-making through specific psychological experiences, such as terror,  helplessness, and reattribution of blame. Two examples: Bombings in Madrid (March 11, 2004) and London (July 7, 2005).
- terrorists are sane, moral, and as much in love with life as anyone else. They are not suicidal and they do not see their lives as wasted when they blow themselves up as part of their larger military-political strategy.
- it is the USA and its allies that is immoral and in need of reform, not the terrorist group.
- on September 11, 2001, the Twin Towers in New York City were attacked in daring commando raids.  
- commandos have been attacking the U.S. and its forces at home and abroad in a declared world war.
- suicide bombers are precision guided missiles, the only ones that can be afforded by a desperate and materially poor army.
- the ends justify the means (e.g., the ideal society that is the goal of Islamic Jihadists  justifies everything and anything).
- organizations labeled as ‘terrorist’ by governments are actually social and political organizations often involved in wide ranging cultural, welfare, and educational programs.

Readings:

  • Moghaddam, F. M. (2005a). The staircase to terrorism: A psychological exploration. American Psychologist, 60, 161-169.
  • Moghaddam, F. M. (2005b). Psychological processes and The Staircase to Terrorism. American Psychologist, 60, 1039-1041.
  • Moghaddam, F. M. (2006a). From the terrorists’ point of view. Westport, CT.: Praeger
     

 

Lecture 10:
Policies for managing diversity

- How can we better organize intergroup relations? 
- Walzer-  ‘Continuum’ of toleration
- Enthusiasm    -   Curiosity    -    Stoic Acceptance   -    Indifference   -     Resignation
- Walzer - Regimes of toleration; Multinational empires, International society; Consociations; Nation states; Immigrant societies
- The psychological citizen and the psychological social contract.

Related concept of contextualized democracy, “the use of local cultural symbols and meaning systems as a way of strengthening democratic trends and bringing into place a democratic state” (Moghaddam, 2006a, p. 129).

- Psychological evidence demonstrates the poverty of both assimilation and multiculturalism as policies for managing diversity and intergroup relations in national and global contexts
- Varieties of assimilation; assimilation re-assessed
- Varieties of multiculturalism; multiculturalism re-assessed
- Introducing omniculturalism: Stage one, understand and highlight human universals; Stage two, as a secondary step, add that human groups also differ in some respects - many such differences being symbolic.
- Results of a recent study on 4,000 Americans suggest strong support for omniculturalism among majority group members (Moghaddam & Breckenridge, 2010)

Readings:

  • Moghaddam, F. M., & Breckenridge, J. (2010). Homeland security and support for multiculturalism,  assimilation, and omniculturalism policies among Americans. Homeland Security Affairs, 4, 1-14.
  • Chapters 7 & 8 in Moghaddam, F. M. (2008b). Multiculturalism and intergroup relations. Washington, DC.: American Psychological Association Press.
  • Chapter 10 in Moghaddam, F. M. (2010). The new global insecurity. Santa Barbara, CA.: Praeger Security International.
  • Moghaddam, F. M. (2009d). De-radicalization and the staircase from terrorism. In D. Canter (Ed.), The faces of terrorism: Multidisciplinary perspectives (pp. 277-292). Chichester & Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

 

Primary Reading List:

Books:

  • Moghaddam, F. M. (2006a). From the terrorists’ point of view. Westport, CT.: Praeger
  • Moghaddam, F. M. (2008a). How globalization spurs terrorism. Westport, CT.: Praeger.
  • Moghaddam, F. M. (2008b). Multiculturalism and intergroup relations. Washington, DC.: American Psychological Association Press.
  • Moghaddam, F. M. (2010). The new global insecurity. Santa Barbara, CA.: Praeger Security International.
  • Moghaddam, F. M. (2002). The individual and society: A cultural integration. New York: Worth

Articles:

  • Moghaddam, F. M. & Vuksanovic, V. (1990). Attitudes  and  behavior toward human rights across different contexts: The role of right wing authoritarianism, political ideology and religiosity. International Journal of Psychology, 25,  455-474.
  • Moghaddam, F. M. (2000). Toward a cultural theory of human rights. Theory & Psychology,  10, 291-312.
  • Moghaddam, F. M., Slocum, N. R., Finkel, N., Harré, R. (2000). Toward a cultural theory of duties. Culture & Psychology, 6, 275-302.
  • Moghaddam, F. M. (2005a). The staircase to terrorism: A psychological exploration. American Psychologist, 60, 161-169.
  • Moghaddam, F. M. (2005b). Psychological processes and >The Staircase to Terrorism=.  American Psychologist, 60, 1039-1041.
  • Moghaddam, F. M. (2006). Catastrophic evolution, culture, and diversity management policy. Culture & Psychology, 12, 415-434.
  • Moghaddam, F. M. (2007).Interrogation policy and American psychology in global context. Journal of Peace Psychology, 13, 437-443.
  • Moghaddam, F. M., & Kavulich, K. A. (2007). Nuclear positioning: The case of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the European Union, and the United States of America. In J. Valsiner & A. Rosa (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of socio-cultural psychology (pp. 576-590). New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Moghaddam, F. M. (2008c). The psychological citizen and the two concepts of the social contract: A preliminary analysis. Political Psychology, 29, 881-901.
  • Moghaddam, F. M. (2008d). Religion and Regional Planning: The Case of the Emerging >Shi=a Region=. In N. Slocum-Bradley (Ed.), How identity constructions promote peace or conflict (pp. 165-181). London: Ashgate.
  • Moghaddam, F. M. (2009a). The new global American dilemma and terrorism. Political Psychology, 30, 373-380.
  • Moghaddam, F. M. (2009b). Violent Islamist extremism in global context. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 1, 164-171.
  • Moghaddam, F. M. (2009c). From the terrorists point of view: Toward a better understanding of the staircase to terrorism. In W. Stritzke, S. Lewandowsky, D. Denemark, F. Morgan & J. Clare (Eds.), Terrorism and torture: An interdisciplinary perspective (pp. 106-124). Cambridge, UK.: Cambridge University Press.
  • Moghaddam, F. M. (2009d). De-radicalization and the staircase from terrorism. In D. Canter (Ed.), The faces of terrorism: Multidisciplinary perspectives (pp. 277-292). Chichester & Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Konaev & Moghaddam (2010). Mutual radicalization. In F.M. Moghaddam & R. Harré (Eds.), Words of conflict, words of war: How the language we use in political processes sparks fighting (pp. 155-171). Santa Brabara, CA.: Praeger Security International.
  • Moghaddam, F. M., & Breckenridge, J. (2010). Homeland security and support for multiculturalism, assimilation, and omniculturalism policies among Americans. Homeland Security Affairs, 4, 1-14.
  • Moghaddam, F. M. (2011). The ‘Ahmadinejad effect’ and ‘pre-emptive’ rights and duties. Culture & Psychology, 17, 297-301.


Secondary Reading List:

Books:

  • Bongar, B., Brown, L. M., Beutler, L. E., & Breckenridge, J. N. (Eds.) (2006), Psychology of terrorism. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • D. Canter (Ed.) (2009), The faces of terrorism: Multidisciplinary perspectives. Chichester & Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Finkel, N., & Moghaddam, F. M. (Eds.) (2005). The psychology of rights and duties: Empirical contributions and normative commentaries. Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association Press.
  • Harré, R., & Moghaddam, F. M. (Eds.) (2012). Psychology for the third millennium. London & Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage.
  • Lee, Y. T., McCauley, C., Moghaddam, F. M., & Worchel, S. (Eds.) (2004). Psychology of Ethnic and Cultural Conflict. Westport, CT.: Greenwood.
  • Moghaddam, F. M.,  Harré, R., & Lee, N. (Eds.) (2008). Global conflict resolution through positioning analysis. New York: Springe
  • Moghaddam, F. M., & Harré, R. (Eds.) (2010). Words of conflict, words of war: How the language we use in political processes sparks fighting. Santa Barbara, CA.: Praeger.

 

The Lecturer:
Please visit Fathali M. Moghaddam's website.


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Tags: PhD, Social Psychology, Summer School, Terrorism, Political Science
Published Oct. 10, 2012 1:18 PM - Last modified Oct. 10, 2012 1:43 PM