Oslo Summer School in Comparative Social Science Studies 2012

Global Energy Dilemmas: Energy Security, Globalization and Climate Change

Lecturer: Professor Michael J. Bradshaw,
Department of Geography,
University of Leicester, UK

Main disciplines: Human Geography, Political Science
Dates: 23 - 27 July 2012
Course Credits: 10 pts (ECTS)
Limitation: 30 participants


Objectives
The objective of this course is to examine the relationship between two of the greatest challenges currently facing the world, namely energy security and climate change. The growth of population, and the associated processes of economic development and urbanization, is driving demand for energy services. Unfortunately, the current fossil fuel energy system that dominates the global energy mix is also the major source of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases that are the primary cause of climate change. Thus, the world faces a ‘Global Energy Dilemma:’ can it have secure and affordable access to energy services that are environmentally benign?  Clearly, to overcome this dilemma the world must change the relationship between energy and development and, at the same time, embark on a transition to a low carbon energy system. The course is organized around the supposition that this global energy dilemma plays itself out in different ways in different parts of the world and that understanding these differences is essential to the success of energy and climate change policies. Furthermore, it sees the process of economic globalization as the essential ‘missing link; that ties together the issues of energy security and climate change.

The first part of the course explains the essentials of the energy system (in a non-technical manner) and then examines the historical relationship between energy, economic development and climate change. It then presents the ‘Global Energy Dilemmas Nexus,’ which is the geographical framework that organizes the rest of the course. The second section is then divided into four sets of three lectures that in turn examine the specifics of the energy dilemmas facing: the developed countries of the OECD; the post-socialist states of Central Europe and the former Soviet Union; the emerging economies and the developing economies of the global South. In each case, two issues are examined in more detail. The final section considers the governance challenges that must be overcome if we are to find solutions to the energy dilemmas that we face that will also bring about a substantial reduction in GHG emissions.

By the end of this course you will have a clear understanding of the interrelationship between energy security and climate change and the role played by economic globalization. You will understand how these complexities play themselves out in the major world regions and will appreciate some of the key issues that face particular regions. Finally, you will appreciate the scale of the governance challenges that must be overcome to achieve the transition to the low carbon energy system that is essential to avoid catastrophic climate change.


Books for preparation

  • Chevalier, J-M (ed.) The New Energy Crisis: Climate, Economics and Geopolitics. Palgrave MacMillan, Basingstoke.
  • Klare, M. (2010) Rising Powers, Shrinking Planet: The New Geopolitics of Energy. Metropolitan Books, New York.
  • Müller-Kraenner, S. (2008) Energy Security: Re-Measuring the World. Earthscan, London.
  • Smil, V. (2010) Energy Transitions: History, Requirements, Prospects. Praeger, Santa Barbara.
  • Yergin, D. (2011) The Quest: Energy Security and the Remaking of the Modern World, Allen Lane, London.


Note: the individual chapters from these books are identified in the course outline. It is not expected that you will read all of these books from cover to cover; Yergin alone is over 700 pages. The book by Yergin can serve as a reference guide for the course. It should soon be available in paperback and is also available for the Kindle.


Course Outline

Lecture 1: Introduction: Energy and Development
This lecture provides an introduction to the course; it introduces the key elements of the energy system and the concept of energy transitions, examines the relationship between energy and economic development and climate change and introduces the concept of the ‘Kaya Identity’.

Readings:

  • Bradshaw, M J (2012) ‘Chapter 1: Introduction’, in Global Energy Dilemmas: Energy Security, Globalization and Climate Change. Polity Press, Cambridge (draft text will be provided by the author).
  • Smil, V. (2010) Energy Transitions: History, Requirements, Prospects. Praeger, Santa Barbara. (Chapter 1 & 2).


Lecture 2: The Global Energy Dilemmas Nexus
This lecture examines contemporary challenges to global energy security, dimensions of scarcity and the relationship between climate change policy and energy policy. Economic globalization is introduced as a key driver. The lecture concludes by explaining the concept of the ‘global energy dilemmas nexus’ and introduces the geographical framework this is used to organize the rest of the course.

Readings:

  • Bradshaw, M J (2012) ‘Chapter 2: The Global Energy Dilemmas Nexus,’ in Global Energy Dilemmas: Energy Security, Globalization and Climate Change. Polity Press, Cambridge (draft text will be provided by the author).
  • Chevalier, J-M (2009) ‘The New Energy Crisis.’ In Chevalier, J-M (ed.) The New Energy Crisis: Climate, Economics and Geopolitics. Palgrave MacMillan, Basingstoke, pp. 6-59.
  • Klare, M. (2010) Rising Powers, Shrinking Planet: The New Geopolitics of Energy. Metropolitan Books, New York. (Chapters 1 & 2).
  • Yergin, D. (2011) The Quest: Energy Security and the Remaking of the Modern World, Allen Lane, London. (Part Two and Part Four).


Lecture 3: Sustaining Affluence: energy dilemmas in high-energy societies
This lecture considers the energy dilemmas facing the ‘high-energy’ societies of the OECD. The lecture reviews the ‘Kaya characteristics’ of the region and examines recent trends in the relationship between energy, economy and climate. It reviews the region’s commitment to the Kyoto Protocol and identifies the key challenges to energy and climate policy.

Readings:

  • Bradshaw, M J (2012) ‘Chapter 3: Sustaining Affluence: Energy Dilemmas in High Energy Societies,’ in Global Energy Dilemmas: Energy Security, Globalization and Climate Change. Polity Press, Cambridge (draft text will be provided by the author).
  • International Energy Agency (2011) World Energy Outlook 2011. IEA, Paris. (See materials available at: http://www.iea.org/weo/).
  • Energy Information Administration (2011) International Energy Outlook 2011, EIA, Washington D.C. (Available at: http://38.96.246.204/forecasts/ieo/)


Lecture 4: US: Energy Independence and Climate Intransigence
This lecture focuses on specific case of the United States. It presents the key characteristics of the US energy system and the focuses on two issues: energy independence and climate change policy. In the first case we consider recent developments in shale gas production and plans to increase the importation of oil sands crude oil. In the second case we consider the barriers to a federal climate change policy and the role of bottom-up initiatives at the state and city level.

Readings:

  • Committee on America’s Climate Choices, National Research Council (2011) America’s Climate Choices. The National Academies Press, Washington D.C. (See summary at: http://americasclimatechoices.org/).
  • Committee on America’s Energy Future, National Research Council (2009) America’s Energy Future: Technology and Transformation: Summary Edition. The National Academies Press, Washington D.C. (See materials at: http://sites.nationalacademies.org/Energy/).
  • Levi, M.A. (2009) The Canadian Oil Sands: Energy Security vs. Climate Change. Council for Foreign Relations, Centre for Geoeconomic Studies, Washington D.C. (Available at: http://www.cfr.org/canada/canadian-oil-sands/p19345).
  • PEW Center on Global Climate Change (2011) Climate Change 101, Pew Center on Global Climate Change, Arlington. (See materials available at: http://www.pewclimate.org/global-warming-basics/climate_change_101).
  • World Energy Council (2010) Survey of Energy Resources: Focus on Shale Gas. WEC, London. (Available at: http://www.worldenergy.org/publications/2843.asp).


Lecture 5: EU: 20/20/20 Vision
This lecture focuses on the EU-15 and examines their current energy characteristics. It considers the role of ‘energy’ in EU policy-making and the nature the EU’s Energy policy. Two issues are then examined in more detail: the geopolitics of pipeline gas from Russia and the role of energy in EU climate policy.

Readings:

  • Boussena, S. and Locatelli, C. (2011) Gas Market Dependence and their effect on relations between Russia and the EU. OPEC Review 35, 27-46.
  • Commission of the European Communities (2010) Energy 2020: A Strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy, CEC, Brussels (This document and much more is available at: http://ec.europa.eu/energy/strategies/2010/2020_en.htm).
  • Müller-Kraenner, S. (2008) Energy Security: Re-Measuring the World. Earthscan, London. (Chapter 5).
  • Noël, P. (2009) A Market Between Us: Reducing the Political Cost of Europe’s Dependence on Russian Gas. University of Cambridge, EPRG Working Paper 0916, Cambridge. (Available at: http://www.eprg.group.cam.ac.uk/category/publications/working-paper-series/).


Lecture 6: Legacies and Liberalization: energy dilemmas in the post-socialist world
This lecture considers the countries that just over 20 years ago were part of the ‘Soviet block.’ This introductory lecture examines the legacies of the Soviet Planned economies and the impact of economic transition on the interrelationship between energy economy and environment.

Readings:

  • Bouzarovski, S. (2010) ‘Post-socialist energy reforms in critical perspective: entangled boundaries, scales and trajectories of change,’ European Urban and Regional Studies 17, 167-182.
  • Bradshaw, M J (2012) ‘Chapter 4:Legacies and Liberalization: energy dilemmas in the post-socialist world,’ in Global Energy Dilemmas: Energy Security, Globalization and Climate Change. Polity Press, Cambridge (draft text will be provided by the author).
  • Ürge-Vorsatz, D., Miladinova, G. and Paizs, L. (2006) ‘Energy transition: from the iron curtain to the European Union,’ Energy Policy 34, 2279-2297.


Lecture 7: Russian Energy Dilemmas
This lecture focuses on the specific case of the Russia, which is both a major energy producer and consumer and key trade partner for Europe. The lecture examines the interrelationship between Russia’s status as energy exporter, the desire to modernize and diversify it economy and the potential impact of climate change.

Readings:

  • Bradshaw, M J (2012) ‘Russian Energy Dilemmas, energy security, globalization and climate change.’ In Russia’s Energy policies: National, Interregional and Global dimensions. Edited by P Aalto. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham (draft text will be provided by the author).


Lecture 8: The Baltic States: between a rock and a hard place
As former Soviet Republics, the Baltics states face a particular energy challenge as they have become an isolated ‘Energy Island’ within the wider context of the European Union. This lecture examines the energy dilemmas facing each of the Baltic states and the EU’s efforts to integrate them into a EU energy system.

Readings:

  • Maigre, M (2010) Energy Security Concerns of the Baltic States. International Centre for Defence Studies, Tallinn. (Available at: http://www.icds.ee/).
  • Sprūds, A. and Rostoks, T. (2009) Energy: Pulling the Baltic Sea Region Together or Apart. ZINĀTNE, Riga. (Chapters on Baltic states, electronic copy will be provided).


Lecture 9: ‘The Great Game’: Central Asia and the Caspian
Following the collapse of the Soviet Union the newly independent states of the Caucasus and Central Asia became the subject of geopolitical competition to access their energy resources. This lecture critically assesses the scripting of the Caspian region as a great game between the major powers.

Readings:

  • Campaner, N. and Gubaidullin, A. (2009) ‘Russia and the Caspian Region: Between East and West.’ In Chevalier, J-M (ed.) The New Energy Crisis: Climate, Economics and Geopolitics. Palgrave MacMillan, Basingstoke, pp. 85-113.
  • Klare, M. (2010) Rising Powers, Shrinking Planet: The New Geopolitics of Energy. Metropolitan Books, New York. (Chapter 5).
  • Yergin, D. (2011) The Quest: Energy Security and the Remaking of the Modern World, Allen Lane, London. (Chapters 2 & 3).


Lecture 10: Fuelling Growth: energy dilemmas in the emerging economies
Much of the current concern about energy security is driven by the rapidly growing demand for energy in the emerging economies, particularly China and India. This lecture widens the lens to consider a larger group of fast growing economies; it then assesses the role of the ‘emerging economies’ in various projections of future energy use and carbon emissions.

Readings:

  • Bradshaw, M J (2012) ‘Chapter 5: Fuelling Growth: energy dilemmas in the emerging economies,’ in Global Energy Dilemmas: Energy Security, Globalization and Climate Change. Polity Press, Cambridge (draft text will be provided by the author).
  • BP (2011) Energy Outlook 2030, BP, London. (Available at: http://www.bp.com/sectiongenericarticle800.do?categoryId=9037134&contentId=7068677
  • Energy Information Administration (2011) International Energy Outlook 2011, EIA, Washington D.C. (Available at: http://38.96.246.204/forecasts/ieo/).
  • Exxon Mobil (2011) Outlook for Energy: A View to 2030, Exxon Mobil, Irvin. (Available at: http://www.exxonmobil.com/Corporate/energy_outlook.aspx).
  • Shell (2011) Signals & Signposts: Shell Energy Scenarios to 2050, Shell, The Hague (Available at: http://www-static.shell.com/static/aboutshell/downloads/aboutshell/signals_signposts.pdf).


Lecture 11: China: powering the workshop of the world
China, more than any other country in the world, epitomizes the energy and climate change challenges associated with rapid economic growth. This lecture details China’s current concerns with energy security and climate change and the policies that are being promoted to address their energy dilemmas.

Readings:

  • Downs, E. (2006) The Brookings foreign policy studies energy security series: China. The Brookings Institution, Washington D.C. (Available at: http://www.brookings.edu/fp/research/energy/2006china.pdf).
  • Klare, M. (2010) Rising Powers, Shrinking Planet: The New Geopolitics of Energy. Metropolitan Books, New York. (Chapter 3).
  • Energy Information Agency (2012) Country Study: China, EIA, Washington DC. (Available at: http://38.96.246.204/countries/cab.cfm?fips=CH).
  • Yergin, D. (2011) The Quest: Energy Security and the Remaking of the Modern World, Allen Lane, London. (Chapters 9 & 10).


Lecture 12: MENA: Challenges to ‘Autocratic oil’
The so-called ‘Arab Spring’ of 2011 has heightened our awareness of the strategic importance of the MENA region, both as energy exporting region and as a growing market for energy services. This lecture reviews the energy situation in the MENA region and considers the factors that will influence the ability of the region to maintain an exportable surplus.

Readings:

  • Aoun, M-C. (2009) ‘Oil and Gas Resources of the Middle East and North Africa: a Curse or a Blessing?’ In Chevalier, J-M (ed.) The New Energy Crisis: Climate, Economics and Geopolitics. Palgrave MacMillan, Basingstoke, pp.115-144.
  • Darbouche, H. and Fattouh, B. (2011) The Implications of the Arab Uprisings for Oil and Gas Markets. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, Working Paper MEP 2, Oxford. (Available at: http://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/MEP_2.pdf).
  • Kalicki, J.H. (2007) Rx for “Oil Addiction”: The Middle East and Energy Security,’ Middle East Policy 14, 76-83.
  • Yergin, D. (2011) The Quest: Energy Security and the Remaking of the Modern World, Allen Lane, London. (Chapter 14).


Lecture 13: Embedded Carbon: trade, development and climate change
While an element of the surging energy demand in the emerging world is being driven by indigenous population growth, urbanization and economic development; economic globalization and participation in international trade is also an important factor. This lecture considers the issue of ‘embedded carbon’ and in doing so re-assesses the relationship between energy security, globalization and climate change policy.

Readings:

  • Guan, D., Peters, G.P, Weber, C.L. and Hubacek, K. (2009) ‘Journey to world top emitter: An analysis of the driving forces of China's recent CO2 emissions surge,’ Geophysical Research Letters 36, L04709, doi:10.1029/2008GL036540.
  • Institute for Integrated Economic Research (2011) Low Carbon and Economic Growth: Key Challenges. IIER, Meilen, Switzerland. (Available at: http://www.iier.ch/pub/files/Sun,%2007/31/2011%20-%2016%3A11/Green%20Growth%20DFID%20report.pdf).
  • Peters, G.P., Minx, J.C., Weber, C.L. and Edenhofer, O. (2011) ‘Growth in emission transfers via international trade from 1990 to 2008,’ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 1006388108.


Lecture 14: Energizing development: energy dilemmas in the global south
Over 1.6 billion people on the planet do not have access to electricity and more than 2.4 billion people still use biomass for cooking and heating. This lecture explores the relationship between the provision of ‘modern’ energy services and development. It also considers the dilemma that the world now faces in terms of seeking to expand access to energy without aggravating climate change.

Readings:

  • Bradshaw, M J (2012) ‘Chapter 6: Decarbonizing development: energy dilemmas in the global south,’ in Global Energy Dilemmas: Energy Security, Globalization and Climate Change. Polity Press, Cambridge (draft text will be provided by the author).
  • UN-Energy (2005) The Energy Challenge for Achieving the Millennium Development Goals. UN, New York. (Available at: http://www.un-energy.org/publications/50-the-energy-challenge-for-achieving-the-millennium-development-goals).
  • World Bank (2010) World Development Report 2010 Development and Climate Change. World Bank, Washington D.C. (Chapter 4: Energizing development without compromising the climate, available at: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWDR2010/Resources/5287678-1226014527953/Chapter-4.pdf).


Lecture 15: The Curse of Plenty: Energy Rich Developing Economies
This lecture considers the particular challenges that face the energy-rich economies of the developing world. The lecture reviews the causes of the so-called ‘resource-curse’ and the policy measures that can be taken to address it. It then considers the implications of the resource curse for global energy security, with a particular focus on competition between China and the US in Africa for access to energy reserves.

Readings:

  • Davis, G. and Tilton, J. (2005) ‘The Resource Curse.’ Natural Resources Forum 29, 233-242.
  • Downs, E.S. (2007) ‘The fact and fiction of Sino-African Energy Relations.’ China Security 3, 42-68.
  • Raphael, S. and Stokes, D. (2011) ‘Globalizing West African oil: US ‘energy security’ and the global economy.’ International Affairs 97, 903-921.
  • Stevens, P. (2003) ‘Resource impact: curse or blessing? A literature survey.’ Journal of Energy Literature 9, 3-42.


Lecture 16: Decarbonizing development: energy, Carbon and International assistance
This lecture examines the relationship between economic development, energy consumption and GHG emissions. It critically evaluates the notion of the ‘energy ladder’ and considers ways in which the global south can improve access to energy services without aggravating climate change. Particular attention is paid to the role of international assistance.

Readings:

  • IEA (2011) Energy for All: financing access for the poor. IEA, Paris. (Available at: http://www.iea.org/Papers/2011/weo2011_energy_for_all.pdf).
  • Macqueen, D. and Korhaliler, S. (2011) Bundles of energy: the case for renewable biomass energy, IIED, London. (Available at: http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/13556IIED.pdf).
  • Wheeler, D. and Ummel, K. (2007) Another Inconvenient Truth: A Carbon-Intensive South Faces Environmental Disaster, No Matter what the North Does. Center for Global Development, Working Paper 134, Washington D.C. (Available at: http://www.cgdev.org/content/publications/detail/14947/).


Lecture 17: Global Governance Challenges
This lecture introduces the final section of the course that considers the governance challenges that must be overcome if the world is to overcome the energy dilemmas that we face. The lecture presents the current governance structures that cover, energy, economy and environment and suggests that a more integrated approach is required. 

Readings:

  • O’Brien, K. and Leichenko, R.M. (2000) Double Exposure: addressing the impacts of climate change within the context of economic globalization.’ Global Environmental Change 10, 221-232.
  • UNDP-WTO (2009) Trade and Climate Change, WTO, Geneva. (Available at: http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/booksp_e/trade_climate_change_e.pdf)


Lecture 18: The Geopolitical Economy of Climate Change
This lecture examines the relationship between climate change policy and geopolitics. It considers the interests of the various ‘groups’ of countries that participate in the Global Climate Change negotiations and assesses the current state of affairs post COP-17 in Durban.

Readings:

  • Barnett, J. (2007) ‘The Geopolitics of Climate Change.’ Geography Compass 3, 1361-1375.
  • Parks, B.C. and Roberts, T. (2008) ‘Inequality and the global climate regime: breaking the north-south impasse.’ Cambridge Review of International Affairs 21, 621-48.


Lecture 19: A Global Energy Dialog?
This final lecture examines the governance structure that influence global energy security. It contrasts the interests of energy importers and energy exporters and assesses initiatives that seek to bring the interests of the two groups closer together.

Readings:

  • Florini, A. and Sovacool, B. (2009) ‘Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance.’ Energy Policy 37, 5239-5248.
  • Goldthau, A. (2011) Governing global energy: existing approaches and discourses.’ Current Opinions in Environmental Sustainability 3, 213-217.


Lecture 20: Course Review

 

Complete Reading List

  • Aoun, M-C. (2009) ‘Oil and Gas Resources of the Middle East and North Africa: a Curse or a Blessing?’ In Chevalier, J-M (ed.) The New Energy Crisis: Climate, Economics and Geopolitics. Palgrave MacMillan, Basingstoke, pp.115-144.
  • Barnett, J. (2007) ‘The Geopolitics of Climate Change.’ Geography Compass 3, 1361-1375.
  • Boussena, S. and Locatelli, C. (2011) Gas Market Dependence and their effect on relations between Russia and the EU. OPEC Review 35, 27-46.
  • Bouzarovski, S. (2010) ‘Post-socialist energy reforms in critical perspective: entangled boundaries, scales and trajectories of change,’ European Urban and Regional Studies 17, 167-182.
  • BP (2011) Energy Outlook 2030, BP, London. (Available at: http://www.bp.com/sectiongenericarticle800.do?categoryId=9037134&contentId=7068677).
  • Bradshaw, M J (2012) Global Energy Dilemmas: Energy Security, Globalization and Climate Change. Polity Press, Cambridge (draft will be provided by the author).
  • Bradshaw, M J (2012) ‘Russian Energy Dilemmas, energy security, globalization and climate change.’ In Russia’s Energy policies: National, Interregional and Global dimensions. Edited by P Aalto. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham (draft text will be provided by the author).
  • Campaner, N. and Gubaidullin, A. (2009) ‘Russia and the Caspian Region: Between East and West.’ In Chevalier, J-M (ed.) The New Energy Crisis: Climate, Economics and Geopolitics. Palgrave MacMillan, Basingstoke, pp. 85-113.
  • In Chevalier, J-M (ed.) (2009) The New Energy Crisis: Climate, Economics and Geopolitics. Palgrave MacMillan, Basingstoke.
  • Commission of the European Communities (2010) Energy 2020: A Strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy, CEC, Brussels (This document and much more is available at: http://ec.europa.eu/energy/strategies/2010/2020_en.htm).
  • Committee on America’s Climate Choices, National Research Council (2011) America’s Climate Choices. The National Academies Press, Washington D.C. (See materials at: http://americasclimatechoices.org/).
  • Committee on America’s Energy Future, National Research Council (2009) America’s Energy Future: Technology and Transformation: Summary Edition. The National Academies Press, Washington D.C. (See materials at: http://sites.nationalacademies.org/Energy/).
  • Darbouche, H. and Fattouh, B. (2011) The Implications of the Arab Uprisings for Oil and Gas Markets. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, Working Paper MEP 2, Oxford. (Available at: http://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/MEP_2.pdf).
  • Davis, G. and Tilton, J. (2005) ‘The Resource Curse.’ Natural Resources Forum 29, 233-242.
  • Downs, E. (2006) The Brookings foreign policy studies energy security series: China. The Brookings Institution, Washington D.C. (Available at: http://www.brookings.edu/fp/research/energy/2006china.pdf).
  • Downs, E.S. (2007) ‘The fact and fiction of Sino-African Energy Relations.’ China Security 3, 42-68.
  • Energy Information Administration (2011) International Energy Outlook 2011, EIA, Washington D.C. (Available at: http://38.96.246.204/forecasts/ieo/).
  • Energy Information Agency (2012) Country Study: China, EIA, Washington DC. (Available at: http://38.96.246.204/countries/cab.cfm?fips=CH).
  • Exxon Mobil (2011) Outlook for Energy: A View to 2030, Exxon Mobil, Irvin. (Available at: http://www.exxonmobil.com/Corporate/energy_outlook.aspx).
  • Florini, A. and Sovacool, B. (2009) ‘Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance.’ Energy Policy 37, 5239-5248.
  • Goldthau, A. (2011) Governing global energy: existing approaches and discourses.’ Current Opinions in Environmental Sustainability 3, 213-217.
  • Guan, D., Peters, G.P, Weber, C.L. and Hubacek, K. (2009) ‘Journey to world top emitter: An analysis of the driving forces of China's recent CO2 emissions surge,’ Geophysical Research Letters 36, L04709, doi:10.1029/2008GL036540.
  • IEA (2011) Energy for All: financing access for the poor. IEA, Paris. (Available at: http://www.iea.org/Papers/2011/weo2011_energy_for_all.pdf).
  • Institute for Integrated Economic Research (2011) Low Carbon and Economic Growth: Key Challenges. IIER, Meilen, Switzerland. (Available at: http://www.iier.ch/pub/files/Sun,%2007/31/2011%20-%2016%3A11/Green%20Growth%20DFID%20report.pdf).
  • International Energy Agency (2011) World Energy Outlook 2011. IEA, Paris. (See materials available at: http://www.iea.org/weo/).
  • Kalicki, J.H. (2007) Rx for “Oil Addiction”: The Middle East and Energy Security,’ Middle East Policy 14, 76-83.
  • Klare, M. (2010) Rising Powers, Shrinking Planet: The New Geopolitics of Energy. Metropolitan Books, New York.
  • Levi, M.A. (2009) The Canadian Oil Sands: Energy Security vs. Climate Change. Council for Foreign Relations, Centre for Geoeconomic Studies, Washington D.C. (Available at: http://www.cfr.org/canada/canadian-oil-sands/p19345).
  • Macqueen, D. and Korhaliler, S. (2011) Bundles of energy: the case for renewable biomass energy, IIED, London. (Available at: http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/13556IIED.pdf).
  • Maigre, M (2010) Energy Security Concerns of the Baltic States. International Centre for Defence Studies, Tallinn. (Available at: http://www.icds.ee/fileadmin/failid/Merle_Maigre-Energy_Security_Concers_of_the_Baltic_States.pdf).
  • Müller-Kraenner, S. (2008) Energy Security: Re-Measuring the World. Earthscan,London.
  • Noël, P. (2009) A Market Between Us: Reducing the Political Cost of Europe’s Dependence on Russian Gas. University of Cambridge, EPRG Working Paper 0916, Cambridge. (Available at: http://www.eprg.group.cam.ac.uk/category/publications/working-paper-series/).
  • O’Brien, K. and Leichenko, R.M. (2000) Double Exposure: addressing the impacts of climate change within the context of economic globalization.’ Global Environmental Change 10, 221-232.
  • Parks, B.C. and Roberts, T. (2008) ‘Inequality and the global climate regime: breaking the north-south impasse.’ Cambridge Review of International Affairs 21, 621-48.
  • Peters, G.P., Minx, J.C., Weber, C.L. and Edenhofer, O. (2011) ‘Growth in emission transfers via international trade from 1990 to 2008,’ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 1006388108.
  • PEW Center on Global Climate Change (2011) Climate Change 101, Pew Center on Global Climate Change, Arlington. (See materials available at: http://www.pewclimate.org/global-warming-basics/climate_change_101).
  • Raphael, S. and Stokes, D. (2011) ‘Globalizing West African oil: US ‘energy security’ and the global economy.’ International Affairs 97, 903-921.
  • Shell (2011) Signals & Signposts: Shell Energy Scenarios to 2050, Shell, The Hague (Available at: http://www-static.shell.com/static/aboutshell/downloads/aboutshell/signals_signposts.pdf).
  • Smil, V. (2010) Energy Transitions: History, Requirements, Prospects. Praeger, Santa Barbara.
  • Sprūds, A. and Rostoks, T. (2009) Energy: Pulling the Baltic Sea Region Together or Apart. ZINĀTNE, Riga. (Chapters on the Baltic State, an electronic copy will be provided).
  • Stevens, P. (2003) ‘Resource impact: curse or blessing? A literature survey.’ Journal of Energy Literature 9, 3-42.
  • UN-Energy (2005) The Energy Challenge for Achieving the Millennium Development Goals. UN, New York. (Available at: http://www.un-energy.org/publications/50-the-energy-challenge-for-achieving-the-millennium-development-goals).
  • UNDP-WTO (2009) Trade and Climate Change, WTO, Geneva. (Available at: http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/booksp_e/trade_climate_change_e.pdf)
  • Ürge-Vorsatz, D., Miladinova, G. and Paizs, L. (2006) ‘Energy transition: from the iron curtain to the European Union,’ Energy Policy 34, 2279-2297.
  • Wheeler, D. and Ummel, K. (2007) Another Inconvenient Truth: A Carbon-Intensive South Faces Environmental Disaster, No Matter what the North Does. Center for Global Development, Working Paper 134, Washington D.C. (Available at: http://www.cgdev.org/content/publications/detail/14947/).
  • World Bank (2010) World Development Report 2010 Development and Climate Change. World Bank, Washington D.C. (Chapter 4: Energizing development without compromising the climate, available at: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWDR2010/Resources/5287678-1226014527953/Chapter-4.pdf).
  • World Energy Council (2010) Survey of Energy Resources: Focus on Shale Gas. WEC, London. (Available at: http://www.worldenergy.org/publications/2843.asp).
  • Yergin, D. (2011) The Quest: Energy Security and the Remaking of the Modern World, Allen Lane, London.

 

The Lecturer
Michael Bradshaw is Professor of Human Geography and former Head in the Department of Geography at the University of Leicester, UK. His PhD is from the University of British Columbia, Canada. His research is on resource geography with a particular focus on the economic geography of Russia and global energy security. In 2007 he was awarded the Royal Geographical Society’s Back Award for his applied research on economic change in post socialist economies. Most recently his research has focused on energy-related issues. For more than fifteen years he has studied the development of the Sakhalin oil and gas projects in Russia’s Far East. This has led to research on energy security in Northeast Asia. From 2008 to 2011 he was engaged in a programme of research on Global Energy Dilemmas, funded by a Leverhulme Trust Major Research Fellowship that examined the relationship between energy security, globalisation and climate change. The finding of this project will be published by Polity Press in a volume entitled: Global Energy Dilemmas: Energy Security, Globalization and Climate Change

In January 2012 he will start a two-year research project on the geopolitical economy global gas security funded by the UK Energy Research Centre. He is Editor-in-Chief of Wiley-Blackwell's Geography Compass, Contributing-Editor of Eurasian Geography and Economics and a past editor of Area. He is an Honorary Senior Research Fellow in the Centre for Russian and East European Studies at the University of Birmingham and a Visiting Senior Research Fellow at the Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.  At present, he is Vice President (Research and Higher Education) and a member of the Council of the Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers). 

Further details of research and publications can be found on his website at: http://www2.le.ac.uk/departments/geography/people/mjb41


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Tags: Geopolitics, Geography, Energy policy, Energy Politics, Summer School, PhD
Published Oct. 10, 2012 1:27 PM - Last modified Oct. 10, 2012 1:35 PM