Oslo Summer School in Comparative Social Science Studies 2011

Power, Liberation and Social Change: A psychosocial Participatory Model to Work with Communities, Organizations and Individuals

Lecturer: Professor Maritza Montero
Department of Social Psychology,
Universidad Central de Venezuela,
Venezuela

Main disciplines: Psychology, Community Psychology, Social Policy

Dates: 1 - 5 August 2011
Course Credits: 10 pts (ECTS)
Limitation: 30 participants


Introduction
With base on the paradigm of Critical Transformation and Construction, and using a generative, participatory and critical community social psychology (CP) as has been developed in Latin America since the mid-seventies, a theoretical and praxis oriented way to work with communities and people will be analyzed and discussed in this Course. In order to produce changes needed to meet their necessities, and overcome negative political and social factors, communities need to develop and strengthen capacities and become aware of their possibilities to introduce positive changes, exerting civil and political rights. A conception of power, based in symmetrical relations, as well as in principles and a praxis oriented by processes de-naturalising and problematising life circumstances leading to exclusion, poverty, and oppression, will be introduced.

Theoretical bases considering philosophy and psychology of liberation, as well as the episteme of relatedness; a critique of asymmetrical conceptions of power, and methodological bases including the model generated by Paulo Freire, with a psychosocial turn developed by community and liberation psychology, will be illustrated with examples showing how it has been adopted and transformed thus creating a paradigm of psychological changes and empowerment. Participatory methods such as participatory action-research; participant observation and interviews, as well as methods for consciousness (denaturalisation- problematisation, conscientisation) will also be discussed. It will be expected that the students participating will provide examples to be analyzed and discussed. Emphasis will be put both in the social and theoretical influences, as well as in praxis, applying forms of social intervention informed by the critical, generative, participatory approach.

 
Objectives

  1. To describe and analyze the paradigm and theoretical bases sustaining a community and political line of action and reflection.
  2. To critically analyse the concept of power that has been dominant during the 20th century and contrast it with the symmetrical conception being currently developed in community social psychology.
  3. To discuss the links between the paradigm, the previous objectives, and the praxis of a community psychology.
  4. To be able to critically employ methods to be used in a community work oriented by participation and consciousness.
  5. To discuss the ethical and political aspects of community psychology practice and theory.
  6. To show how community psychology represents a fruitful framework for psychological work in general.

 

Basic books/articles

Students are expected to obtain and read at least some of these in advance of the course:

  • Freire, P. (1993) Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Herder & Herder. (Also in Seabury Press)
  • Bourdieu, P. (1977) An Outline of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Martín-Baró, I. (1994) Writings for a liberation psychology, edited by A. Aron & S. Corne. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Specifically: “Towards a psychology of liberation” and Challenges and perspectives for Psychology in Latin America”.
  • Dussel, Enrique (2000) Philosophy of Liberation. Maryland, U,S,A,; Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Orford, J. (2008) Community Psychology.Challenges, Controversies and Emerging Consensus. Hoboken, US: John Wiley & Son.
  • S. Reich; M. Riemer; I. Prilleltensky & M. Montero (Eds.) International Community Psychology. Theory and Histories (pp.63-98). New York: Springer.
  • M. Montero & C. Sonn (2009) The Psychology of Liberation. Theory and Application. New York: Springer.
  • Montero, M. (Ed.) (2004) Leadership and organization for community prevention and intervention in Venezuela. Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the community.27 (1) Whole issue. Also edited as a book with same title, by Haworth Press, New York, 2004
  • Reason, Peter & Bradbury, Hillary (Eds.) (2001) Handbook of Action Research. Participative Inquiry and Practice. London: Sage.

 

LECTURE OUTLINE

Lecture 1: How parallel modes of community psychology were developed: Circumstances that impelled and gave way to its production. The critique of palliating modes of community intervention. The semantic plurality of the concept of community.

1.1. The evolution of Community Psychology. From palliative measures to generative processes. Circumstances for the generation of transformative community psychology. America (North and Latin), Australia, Africa, Asia and Europe beyond welfare.

Readings:

  • Montero, M. (1996) Parallel lives: Community psychology in Latin America and the U.S. American Journal of Community Psychology 24 (6): 589-605. (16 pages).
  • Angelique, H. & Culley, M. R. (2007) History and Theory of Community Psychology: An International Perspective of Community Psychology in the United States: Returning to Political, Critical, and ecological Roots. In S. Reich; M. Riemer; I. Prilleltensky & M. Montero (Eds.) International Community Psychology. Theory and Histories (pp.37-62). New York: Springer. (25 pages).

1.2. Definition and conception of CP. Critique of the concept of community. Cultural influence.

Readings:

  • Montero, M. & Varas-Díaz, N. (2007). Latin American Community Psychology: Development, Implications and Challenges Within a Social Change Agenda. In S. Reich; M. Riemer; I. Prilleltensky & M. Montero (Eds.) International Community Psychology. Theory and Histories (pp.63-98). New York: Springer. (35 pages).
  • Carlquist, E,; Nafstad, H. E. & Blakar, R. (2007) Community Psychology in a Scandinavian Society: The Case of Norway. In S. Reich; M. Riemer; I. Prilleltensky & M. Montero (Eds.) International Community Psychology. Theory and Histories (pp.282-299). New York: Springer. (17 pages).
  • Burton, M.; Boyle, S.; Harris, C. & Kagan, C. (2007) Community Psychology in England. In S. Reich; M. Riemer; I. Prilleltensky & M. Montero (Eds.) International Community Psychology. Theory and Histories (pp.219-237). New York: Springer. (18 pages).

 

Lecture 2: Theoretical influences in Community psychology. Main ideas supporting its construction. Parallelism, innovations, and similarities.

2.1. The influence of attribution theories in the construction of community psychology. The ecological model and concepts used in U.S. and areas of influence. The iterative-generative-reflective practice in Australia.

Readings:

  • Kelly, J. G. (1986) Context and process: An ecological view of the interdependence of practice and research. American Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 581-589 (8 pages).
  • Bishop, B.J., Sonn, C.C., Drew, N. M., Contos, N. E. (2002) The evolution of epistemology and concepts in an iterative-generative reflective practice: The importance of small differences. American Journal of Community Psychology, 30, 493-510 (17 pages).

2.2. The Marxian imprint. Freire’s Adult education; Fals Borda’s Critical Sociology. Theories of Dependency and Underdevelopment. Complexity, paradox and dialogical approach in Latin America.

Readings:

  • Freire, P. (1993) Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Herder & Herder /Also Seabury. Chapter 3.
  • Fals Borda, O. (1979) The problem of investigating reality in order to transform it. Dialectical Anthropology, 4 (1), 33-56.

 

Lecture 3: The context for the generation of a paradigm. Paradigm supporting, and characteristics defining, a generative community psychology. Complexity, paradox and dialogical approach. Dimensions of the paradigm of critical construction and transformation.

3.1. The construction of the paradigm and its origins. Ontological, epistemological, methodological, ethical and political dimensions.

Readings:

  • Montero, M. (1998) Psychosocial community work as an alternative modeof political action (The construction and critical transformation of society). Community, Work & the Family 1(1), 65-78. (13 pages).

3.2. The Interaction between community psychology and the philosophy and Psychology of Liberation. Common influences. The episteme of relatedness. Otherness

Readings:

  • Montero, M. (2007) The Psychology of Liberation. From Politics to Ethics and Back. Political Psychology, 28 (5) 517-.534. (17 pages)
  • Montero, M, & Sonn, C. (2009) About Liberation and Psychology: an Introduction. In M. Montero & C. Sonn (Eds.) The Psychology of Liberation. Theory and Application. (10 pages). New York: Springer.
  • Dussel, E. (2000). Philosophy of Liberation. Maryland, U.S.: Rowman & Littlefield. Chapter 5.
  • Montero, M. (2003) Relatedness as the Basis for Liberation. International Journal of Critical Psychology, 9 (pp. 61-74). (13 pages).

 

Lecture 4: Values and principles orienting a generative community psychology. The expression of the ethical character of community psychology. Ethical and political aspects of community psychology.

4.1. Values and Principles of Community Psychology.

Readings:

  • Orford, J. (2008) Community Psychology. Challenges, Controversies and Consensus. Hoboken, US: John Wiley & Son. Part 1, chapter 3: Community Psychology Core’s Values: Empowerment, Liberation and Social Justice (pp. 35-66) (31 pages).

4.2. The notion of empowerment and its critique. Alternative notions: Strengthening, re-strengthening.

Readings:

  • Lorion, R. P. & McMillan, D. W. (2008) Does empowerment require disempowerment? Reflections on psychopolitical validity. Journal of Community Psychology.36 (2) 254-260. (6 pages).
  • Rappaport, J. (2002/1980) In praise of paradox: A Social Policy of Empowerment Over Prevention. In Revenson, T.A.; D’Augelli, A. R.; French, S.E.; Hughes, D.L.; Livert, D.; Seidman, E., Shinn, M. & Yoshikawa, H. (Eds.) (2002) A Quarter Century of Community Psychology (pp.121-145). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. (24 pages).
  • Rieger, S. (1993/2002). What’s wrong with empowerment. In T. Revenson, R. D’ Augelli, S. French et alii (Eds.) A quarter century of community psychology (pp. 395-408). New York: Kluger Academic/Plenum (originally in the American Journal of Community Psychology, 21 (3) 270-292). (22 pages).
  • Zimmerman, M. A. (2000) Empowerment theory: psychological, organizational, and community levels of analysis. In J. Rappaport & E. Seidman (Eds.) Handbook of community psychology (pp. 43-63). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum. (20 pages)

 

Lecture 5: Power is a fundamental notion in CP. In order to transform things people need power; asymmetrical conceptions of power maintain its concentration in a single pole of social relations. Its effects both to impose modes of behaviour and to change them, as well as the role played by community leadership need to be critically analyzed.

5.1. Power in, for, within the community. The critique of asymmetrical power. A different conception of power: Symmetrical power.

5.2. Leadership and community. Difficulties. The relationships between internal and external agents.

Readings:

  • Montero, M. (Ed.) (2004) Leadership and organization for community prevention and intervention in Venezuela. Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the community.27 (1) Whole issue. Also edited as a book with same title, by Haworth Press, New York, 2004). (52 pages)

 

Lecture 6: The concept of participation–commitment, a binomial relationship. Participatory methods used in Community Psychology: PAR and other complementary methods.

6.1. The binomial participation-commitment. Concepts and relations.

Readings:

  • Montero, M. (2002) New Horizons for knowledge: The Influence of Citizen Participation. In L. Jason; C. B. KeysM Y. Suarez-Balcazar; R.R. Taylor & M. I. Davis (Eds.) Participatory Community Research. Theories and Methods in Action. (pp. 251-262). Washington: A.P.A. (11 pages).
  • Montero, M. (2000) Participation in Participatory Action-Research. Annual Review of Critical Psychology. (2) Pp. 131-144. (13 pages).

6.2. The construction of theory from praxis. Praxis that informs theory, theory that generates practices.

Readings:

  • Montero, M. (2002). On the Construction of Reality and Truth. Towards an Epistemology of Community Social Psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology, 30 (4): 571-584. (13 pages).

 

Lecture 7: Participatory methods used in Community Psychology: Participatory Action-Research and the action-reflection-action model. The practice of values as reflected by the analectic method.

7.1. Participatory methods for community work: Participatory action-research and the action-reflection-action method.

Readings:

  • Fals Borda, O. (2001) Participatory (Action) Research in Social Theory: Origins and Challenges. In P. Reason & H. Bradbury (Eds.) Handbook of Action Research. Participative inquiry and Practice (pp. 27-37). London: Sage. (10 pages).
  • Freire, P. (1970) Pedagogy of the Oppressed. (also in Lecture 2).
  • Montero, M. (2000) Participation in Participatory Action-Research. Annual Review of Critical Psychology. (2) Pp. 131-144. (13 pages).

7.2. The concept of analectics. The analectic method.

Readings:

  • Dussel, E. (2000). Philosophy of Liberation. Maryland, U.S.: Rowman & Littlefield. Chapter 5. (Also in Lecture 5).

 

Lecture 8: Mobilizing consciousness in order to transform communities needs to know the processes maintaining certain conditions that may be hurdles for changes. Also, that mobilization is obtained by processes acting over those obstacles, and leading to conscientization.

8.1. The concept of habitus and habituation. Naturalization, ideologisation, alienation. Theoretical aspects and practice aspects.

Readings: 

  • Bourdieu, P. (1977) An Outline of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Specifically: “Structures, habitus and practices”. (93 pages).
  • Blakar, R., Carlquist, E. & Nafstad, H. (In Press) Towards a psychology for a humankind and a planet under multiple threats: A social psychology of ideology. In Valentim, J. P. (Ed.). Social psychology: Anchoring and horizons. Berlin: Peter Lang Publishing Group.
  • Montero, M. (1990) Ideology and Psychosocial Research in Third World contexts. Journal of Social Issues 46 (3): 43-56. (13 pages).

8.2. Psychosocial processes overcoming certain forms of naturalization, ideology and alienation, and developing a different consciousness: Denaturalization, problematisation, de-ideologisation and de-alienation.

Readings:

  •  Montero, M. (2009) Methods for liberation: Critical consciousness in action (pp. 73-92). In M. Montero & C. Sonn (Eds.) The Psychology of Liberation. Theory and Application. New York: Springer. (19 pages)

 

Lecture 9: Methods for consciousness. Introducing doubt in order to introduce community and individual changes.

9.1. Denaturalization. Participant observation.

9.2. Problematisation. Participatory interviews.

Reading:

  • Montero, M. (2009) Methods for liberation: Critical consciousness in action (pp. 73-92). In M. Montero & C. Sonn (Eds.) The Psychology of Liberation. Theory and Application. New York: Springer. (Same as in lecture 8)

 

Lecture 10: Other participatory and conscientizising methods:

Biographical methods: Life histories, Narratives, Autobiographies, Field Notes.

Readings: 

  • Czarniawska, B. (2004) Narratives in Social Science Research. London: Sage. Chapters 1 (15 pages), and 2 (14 pages).
  • Miller, R. L. (2000) Researching Life Stories and Family histories. London: Sage. Chapters 1 and 6 (24 pages).

 

Time will be left to answer questions; discussion of topics analysed, and of student’s projects.

 

The complete reading list

  • Angelique, H. & Culley, M. R. (2007) History and Theory of Community Psychology: An International Perspective of Community Psychology in the United States: Returning to Political, Critical, and ecological Roots. In S. Reich; M. Riemer; I. Prilleltensky & M. Montero (Eds.) International Community Psychology. Theory and Histories (pp.37-62). New York: Springer. (25 pages).
  • Bishop, B.J., Sonn, C.C., Drew, N. M., Contos, N. E. (2002) The evolution of epistemology and concepts in an iterative-generative reflective practice: The importance of small differences. American Journal of Community Psychology, 30, 493-510 (17 pages).
  • Blakar, R., Carlquist, E. & Naftad, H. (In Press) Towards a psychology for a humankind and a planet under multiple threats: A social psychology of ideology. In Valentim, J. P. (Ed.). Social psychology: Anchoring and horizons. Berlin: Peter Lang Publishing Group.
  • Bourdieu, P. (1977) An Outline of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Specifically from “Structures, habitus and practices” (93 pages).
  • Carlquist, E,; Nafstad, H. E. & Blakar, R. (2007) Community Psychology in a Scandinavian Society: The Case of Norway. In S. Reich; M. Riemer; I. Prilleltensky & M. Montero (Eds.) International Community Psychology. Theory and Histories (pp.282-299). New York: Springer. (17 pages).
  • Czarniawska, B. (2004) Narratives in Social Science Research. London: Sage. Chapters 1 (15 pages), and 2 (14 pages).
  • Dussel, E. (2000). Philosophy of Liberation. Maryland, U.S.: Rowman & Littlefield. Chapter 5.
  • Fals Borda, O. (2001) Participatory (Action) Research in Social Theory: Origins and Challenges. In P. Reason & H. Bradbury (Eds.) Handbook of Action Research. Participative inquiry and Practice (pp. 27-37). London: Sage. (10 pages)
  • Freire, P. (1993) Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Herder & Herder.
  • Hughes, D. L. & Seidman, E. (2002) In Pursuit of a Culturally Anchored Methodology. In Revenson, T. A.; D’Augelli, A. R.; French, S.E.; Seidman, E.; Shinn, M. & Yoshikawa, H. (Eds.) Ecological research to promote Social Change (pp. 243-255). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. (8 pages).
  • Kelly, J. G. (1986) Context and process: An ecological view of the interdependence of practice and research. American Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 581-589 (8 pages).
  • Miller, R. L. (2000) Researching Life Stories and Family histories. London: Sage. Chapters 1 and 6 (24 pages).
  • Montero, M. (1990) Ideology and Psychosocial Research in Third World contexts. Journal of Social Issues 46 (3): 43-56. (13 pages).
  • Montero, M. (1996) Parallel lives: Community psychology in Latin America and the U.S. American Journal of Community Psychology 24 (6): 589-605. (16 pages).Montero, M. (1998) Psychosocial community work as an alternative mode of political action (The construction and critical transformation of society). Community, Work & the Family 1(1), 65-78. (13 pages).
  • Montero, M. (2000) Participation in Participatory Action-Research. Annual Review of Critical Psychology. (2) Pp. 131-144. (13 pages).
  • Montero, M. (2002) New Horizons for knowledge: The Influence of Citizen Participation. In L. Jason; C. B. KeysM Y. Suarez-Balcazar; R.R. Taylor & M. I. Davis (Eds.) Participatory Community Research. Theories and Methods in Action. (pp. 251-262). Washington: A.P.A. (11 pages).
  • Montero, M. (2002) On the Construction of Reality and Truth. Towards an Epistemology of Community Social Psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology, 30 (4): 571-584. (13 pages).
  • Montero, M. (2003) Relatedness as the Basis for Liberation. International Journal of Critical Psychology, 9 (pp. 61-74). (13 pages).
  • Montero, M. (Ed.) (2004) Leadership and organization for community prevention and intervention in Venezuela. Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the community.27 (1) Whole issue. Also edited as a book with same title, by Haworth Press, New York, 2004). Pages 7 to 69. (52 pages).
  • Montero, M. (2007) Psychology of Liberation (From Politics to Ethic and Back). Political Psychology,28 (5) 517-.534. (17 pages).
  • Montero, M. & Varas-Díaz, N (2007) Latin American Community Psychology: Development, Implications and Challenges Within a Social Change Agenda. In S. Reich; M. Riemer; I. Prilleltensky & M. Montero (Eds.) International Community Psychology. Theory and Histories (pp.63-98). New York: Springer. (35 pages).
  • Montero, M. (2009) Methods for liberation: Critical consciousness in action. In M. Montero & C. Sonn (Eds.) The Psychology of Liberation. Theory and Application. (pp.73-92). New York: Springer.
  • Orford, J. (2008) Community Psychology. Challenges, Controversies and Consensus. Hoboken, US: John Wiley & Son. Part 1, chapter 3: Parts 2 and 3 (pp. 35-97). (62 pages).
  • Rappaport, J. (2002/1980) In praise of paradox: A Social Policy of Empowerment Over Prevention. In Revenson, T.A.; D’Augelli, A. R.; French, S.E.; Hughes, D.L.; Livert, D.; Seidman, E., Shinn, M. & Yoshikawa, H. (Eds.) (2002) A Quarter Century of Community Psychology (pp.121-145). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. (24 pages).
  • Revenson, T. A. & Seidman, E. (2002) Looking Backward and Moving Forward : Reflections on a Quarter Century of Community Psychology. In Revenson, T. A.; D’Augelli, A. R.; French, S.E.; Seidman, E.; Shinn, M. & Yoshikawa, H. (Eds.) Ecological research to promote Social Change (pp. 3-31). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. (28 pages).
  • Zimmerman, M, A. (2000). Empowerment theory: psychological, organizational, and community levels of analysis. Em J. Rappaport & E. Seidman (Eds.) Handbook of community psychology (pp. 43-63). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.(20 pages)

 

Additional readings recommended:

  • Dussel, E. (2000) Philosophy of Liberation. Maryland, U.S.:Rowman & Littlefield. Chapter 5.
  • Freire, P. (1973). Education for Critical Consciousness. New York: Seabury Press
  • Martín-Baró, I. (1994) Writings for a liberation psychology, edited by A. Aron & S. Corne. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Specifically: “Towards a psychology of liberation” and Challenges and perspectives for Psychology in Latin America”.
  • Montero, M. (1998). Introduction: The Latin American Approach to Community Psychology. Journal of Community Psychology 26(3): 199-204
  • Moreno, A. (2003) Living and Knowing. A Participatory-Hermeneutic Approach to Community Psychology. International Journal of Critical Psychology, 9 (pp. 75-91). (16 pages).
  • Reason, P. & Bradbury, H. (Eds.) (2002) Handbook of Action Research.London: Sage.
  • Roberts, B. (2002) Biographical Research. Buckingham: Open University Press.

 

The Lecturer
Maritza Montero obtained her Ph.D. at the Centre de Ethnopsichologie et Psychologie Sociale of the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales of Paris University. She is Professor of Social Psychology and member of the Academic Committee of the Graduate Program in Psychology at University Central de Venezuela. Montero has published extensively in journals in the U.S., Latin America and Europe. A past Senior Fellow at St. Antony's College, Oxford; Visiting Scholar at the University of London’s Centre for Multicultural Education, and Maître de Conferences at the Centre de Recherches sur la Parole, of the Université de Paris 8, Montero concentrates on three lines of research and action: (1) political and community psychology, (2) theoretical, epistemological and methodological aspects in Social Psychology, and (3) political discourse analysis.

She has been President of the International Society of Political Psychology (2006), and has taught and lectured in academic and research Centres in France, Germany, Spain, the United Kingdom, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, México, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, and U.S.A.. She is a member of editorial boards of several community and social psychology journals, including the American Journal of Community Psychology (where she is a Senior Associate Editor); the Journal of Community Psychology; Community, Work and Family; the Interamerican Journal of Psychology and Teoría e Sociedade. In 1995 she received the Inter-American Psychology Award, and in 2000 she received the Venezuelan National Science Award (2000).

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Published Aug. 24, 2011 2:20 PM