Oslo Summer School in Comparative Social Science Studies 2006
Gender and Work
Lecturer: Associate Professor Julie Brines,
Department of Sociology,
University of Washington, USA
(Associate Professor Julie Brines substituted Professor Barbara Reskin in lecturing this course).
Main discipline: Sociology
Dates: 31 July - 4 August 2006
Course Credits: 10 pts (ECTS)
Limitation: 20 participants
This seminar will examine the links between gender and labor markets, work organizations, and the family, and how these connections vary cross nationally. We will review explanations for differences in the roles women and men play in the division of labor at work and between work and family and for differences in their opportunities and rewards at work. Finally, we will examine how employers’ practices and public policy contribute to the extent to which workers’ sex affects the work they do and the rewards work provides. Please select one optional reading from an area in which you are familiar to discuss in class.
The essential reading for this course is: Padavic, Irene and Barbara Reskin. 2002. Women and Men at Work (2nd ed.). Pine Forge. All students are expected to acquire a copy of it and read the relevant chapters prior to the beginning of the course. It is also strongly suggested to purchase a copy of: Seager, Joni. 2005. The Penguin Atlas of Women in the World: Completely Revised and Updated, as a useful consulting reference throughout the course.
Lecture 1: Introduction to Gender, Work, and Gender at Work
1. Overview of course
- Focus on labor force participation, segregation, advancement, earnings
- Examine cross-national variation in strength of association between gender and work
- Consider explanations for link between gender and work
- Explore policy interventions that strengthen or weaken that link
2. Theoretical concepts
- Social differentiation/categorization
- Gender differentiation, categorization
3. Doing Gender
- Perdue, C. W., J. F. Dovidio, M. B. Gurtman, and R. B. Tyler. 1990. “’Us’ and ‘Them’: Social Categorization and the Process of Intergroup Bias.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 59: 475-86.
- James, Jacqueline (ed.), 1997. The Significance of Gender: Theory and Research about Difference. [Special issues of the Journal of Social Issues 53 (Summer):2]:213-32.
- Padavic, Irene and Barbara Reskin. 2002. Women and Men at Work (2nd ed.). Pine Forge, chapters 1-2
- Risman, Barbara. 2004. “Gender as Social Structure.” Gender & Society 18:429-50.
- Martin, Patricia. 2004. “Gender as a Social Institution.” Social Forces 82 (June):1249-74.
Lecture 2: Labor Markets, Work, and Gendered Work
1. Conceptualizing work, labor force
3. Gendered work:
4. Historical overview
5. Cross-national patterns
6. Classification of explanations for gendered work
- Padavic and Reskin, Chapter 7
- West, Candace and Don Zimmerman. 1987. “Doing Gender.” Gender and Society 1:125-151.
- Williams, Joan. 2000. “Deconstructing the Ideal-Worker Norm in Market Work.” Pp. 64-113 in Unbending Gender. Oxford University Press.
Lecture 3: Explaining the link between gender and work; Labor force participation
Explaining the association between gender and work:
2. Neoclassical economic theories: human capital
4. Historical and cultural explanations
5. Competition, patriarchy, opportunity hoarding
6. Social policy
- Padavic and Reskin, Chapter 3.
- Heilman, Madeline. 1995. “Sex Stereotypes and Their Effects in the Workplace.” Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 10:3-26.
- Cohn, Samuel. 1985. "Exclusion by Organized Labor." Pp. 136-72 in The Process of Occupational Sex Typing. Philadelphia: Temple.
- Reskin, Barbara. 2003. “Motives and Mechanisms in Models of Inequality.” American Sociological Review 68:1-21.
- Becker, Gary S. 1985. "Human Capital, Effort, and the Sexual Division of Labor." Journal of Labor Economics 3, pt. 2:S33-58.
- Cockburn, Cynthia. 1991. In the Way of Women: Men’s Resistance to Equality in Organizations. ILR Press. 260 pp.
- Burton, Clare. 1992. “Merit and Gender: Organizations and the Mobilization of Masculine Bias.” Pp. 185-200 in Mills and Tancred (eds.), Gendering Organizational Analysis. Sage.
- Reskin, Barbara. 2002. “Rethinking Employment Discrimination.” Pp. 218-44 in Mauro Guillen, Randall Collins, Paula England, and Marshall Meyer (eds.). The New Economic Sociology: Developments in an Emerging Field. N.Y.: Russell Sage.
- Rosenfeld, Rachel, Heide Trappe, and Janet Gornick. 2004. “Gender and Work in Germany.” Annual Review of Sociology 30:103-24.
Lecture 4: Explaining variation in labor force participation, domestic work and family
1. Cross-national overview in labor force participation
2. Cross-national patterns in sexual division of labor between work and family
3. Work and family: finding time
- van der Lippe, Tanja and Liset van Dijk. 2001. “Women’s Employment in a Comparative Perspective.” Pp. 1-10 in Tanja van der Lippe and Liset van Dijk (eds.), Women’s Employment in A Comparative Perspective. Aldine.
- van der Lippe, Tanja. 2001. “The Effect of Individual and Institutional Constraints on Hours of Paid Work of Women: An International Comparison.” Pp. 221-43 in Tanja van der Lippe and Liset van Dijk (eds.), Women’s Employment in A Comparative Perspective.
- Haney, Lynne and Gabriel Dragomir. 2002. “After the Fall: Eastern European Women since the Collapse of State Socialism.” Contexts (Fall):27-36.
- Perlow, Leslie. 1997. “Flexible Work Options Fall Short: Kate’s Story.” Pp. 103-14 in Finding Time: How Corporations, Individuals, and Families Can Benefit from New Work Practices. ILR.
- Consult Seager, Joni. 2005. The Penguin Atlas of Women in the World: Completely Revised and Updated. [purchase]
- Pettit, Becky and Jen Hook. 2005. “The Structure of Women’s Employment in Comparative Perspective.” Social Forces 84:779-801.
- Rubery, Jill, Mark Smith, and Colette Fagan. 1999. Women’s Employment in Europe: Trends and Prospects.
- Gornick, Janet C. and Marcia Meyers. 2003. Families that Work: Policies for Reconciling Parenthood and Employment. Russell Sage.
Lecture 5: Sex segregation at work
1. Measuring sex segregation
2. Cross-national patterns
3. Explaining variation within and across countries
- Padavic and Reskin, chapter 4.
- Morgan, Glenn and David Knights. 1991. “Gendering Jobs: Corporate Strategy, Managerial Control, and the Dynamics of Job Segregation.” Work, Employment & Society 5:181-200.
- Hartmann, Heidi I. 1976. "Capitalism, Patriarchy, and Job Segregation by Sex." Signs 1:137-69.
- Steinberg, Ronnie. 1990. "Social Construction of Skill." Work and Occupations 17:449-482.
- Arvantitaki, Katerina and Maria Stratigaki. 1994. “Computerization in Greek Banking: The Gendering of Jobs and Payment Practices.” Pp. 59-76 in Cynthia Cockburn and Ruza Furst Dilic (eds.), Bringing Technology Home. Open University.
Lecture 6: Sex segregation at work, continued
- Charles, Maria and David Grusky. 2004. Occupational Ghettoes: The Worldwide Segregation of Women and Men. Stanford. [purchase]
- Melkas, Helina and Richard Anker. 1998. Gender Equality and Occupational Segregation in Nordic Labour Markets. ILO.
Lecture 7: Gender, promotions, management
- Padavic and Reskin, Ch. 5.
- Kanter, Rosabeth. 1979. Chapters 3-8 of Men and Women of the Corporation. NY: Basic. [purchase; older versions OK]
- Ogasawara, 2001. “Women’s Solidarity: Company Policies and Japanese Office Ladies.” Pp 151-79 in M. Brinton (ed.), Women’s Working Lives in East Asia. Stanford.
- Rosenfeld, Rachel, with Mark E. Van Buren and Arne L. Kalleberg. 1998. “Gender Differences in Supervisory Authority: Variation among Advanced Industrialized Democracies.” Social Science Research 27: 23-49.
- International Labour Organization. 1997. Breaking through the Glass Ceiling: Women in Management. Geneva. ILO.
- Reskin, Barbara and Debra McBrier . 2000. “Why Not Ascription?” American Sociological Review 65:210-33.
- Williams, Christine. 1992. “The Glass Escalator: Hidden Advantages for Men in the Female Professions.” Social Problems 39:253-267
Lecture 8: Gender and earnings
1. Historical trends in the wage gap
2. Cross-national patterns
3. Explanations for variation in the wage gap
-- a. Differences in human capital
-- b. Differences in hours worked
-- c. Devaluation of women’s work
- Padavic and Reskin, Chapter 6.
- Kim, Marlene. 1999. “Inertia and Discrimination in the California State Civil Service.” Industrial Relations 38 (1):46-68.
- England, Paula, Lori L. Reid, and Barbara Kilbourne. 1996. "The Effect of Sex Composition on the Starting Wages in an Organization: Findings from the NLSY." Demography 33:511-22.
- Reskin, Barbara and Denise Bielby. 2005. “A Sociological Perspective on Gender and Career Outcomes.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 19:71-86.
- Bielby, Denise and William Bielby. 1988. "She Works Hard for the Money . . . : Household Responsibilities and the Allocation of Work Effort." American Journal of Sociology 93:1031-59.
- Gornick, Janet. 1999. “Gender Equality in the Labour Market: Women’s Employment and Earnings.” In Diane Sainsburg (ed.), Gender Policy Regimes and Welfare States. Oxford University Press.
- Budig, Michelle and Paula England. 2001. “The Wage Penalty for Motherhood.” American Sociological Review 66:204-25.
- Badgett, M. V. Lee and Nancy Folbre. 1999. “Assigning Care: Gender Norms and Economic Outcomes.” International Labour Review. 138:311-326.
- Trappe, Heike and Rachel Rosenfeld. 2001. “How Do Children Matter: A Comparison of Gender Earnings Inequality among Young Adults in Germany.” Pp. 109-50 in Tanja van der Lippe and Liset van Dijk (eds.), Women’s Employment in A Comparative Perspective. Aldine.
Lecture 9: Globalization and gendered work
- Lim, Lin Lean. 1998. The Sex Sector. Geneva, ILO. Chapter 1, “The Economic and Social bases of Prostitution in Southeast Asia.” Pp. 1-28.
- Oishi, Nana. 2005. Pp. 171-92 in Women in Motion: Globalization, State Policies, and Labor Migration in Asia. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- Fernandez-Kelly, Patricia. 2006. “The Global Assembly Line in the New Millennium.” Forthcoming Book Review.
Lecture 10: Policies that affect gender inequality at work
- Den Dulk, Laura. 2001. “Work-Family Arrangements in Organizations: An International Comparison.” Pp. 37-57 in Tanja van der Lippe and Liset van Dijk (eds.), Women’s Employment in A Comparative Perspective. Aldine.
- Heide, Ingeborg. 1999. “Supranational Action Against Sex Discrimination: Equal Pay and Equal Treatment in the European Union.” International Labour Review 138(4):381-410.
- Bielby, William. 2000. “How to Minimize Workplace Gender and Racial Bias.” Contemporary Sociology 29: 120-29.
- Glass, Jennifer and Sara Beth Estes. 1997. “The Family Responsive Workplace.” Annual Review of Sociology 23:289-313.
- Albiston, Catherine. 2005. “Mobilizing Employment Rights in the Workplace.” Pp. 295-316 in Nielsen and Nelson (eds.), Handbook of Discrimination Research: Rights and Realities.
- Gornick, Janet. 2004. “Women’s Economic Outcomes, Gender Inequality, and public policy: Findings from the Luxembourg Income Study. Socio-Economic Review 2:213-38.
- Plantenja, Janneka and Johan Hansen. 1999. “Assessing Equal Opportunities in the European Union.” International Labour Review 138:351-79.
- van Dijk, Liset. 2001. “Macro Changes in Public Childcare Provision, Parental Leave, and Women’s Employment: An International Comparison. Pp. 37-57 in Tanja van der Lippe and Liset van Dijk (eds.), Women’s Employment in A Comparative Perspective.
Julie Brines is Associate Professor of Sociology and Associate Director of the Center for Research on Families at the University of Washington, Seattle, USA. She has previously taught at Harvard University and the University of Chicago. Prof. Brines's research focuses on gender, work, and family dynamics: specific applications include the division of household labor, gender, work, and interdependence in couple relationships, married women's employment, and patterns of parental investment in sons and daughters. Selected publications include "The Ties that Bind: Principles of Cohesion in Marriage and Cohabitation" (American Sociological Review) and "Gender, Economic Dependency, and the Division of Labor at Home" (American Journal of Sociology). She is currently preparing a book on gender, work, and the reproduction of inequalities within and between families.
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