Oslo Summer School in Comparative Social Science Studies 2004


 

Academic Identity and Organizational Change in Higher Education:
Comparing Europe and the USA

Dates: 2. - 6. August 2004

Lecturers: Mary Henkel and Maurice Kogan ,
Centre for the Evaluation of Public Policy and Practice,
Brunel University , United Kingdom

The participants:
Karin Agélii, Magnus Eriksson, Johanna Hakala, Tove Hauge, Susanna Holzer, Virpi Honkanen, Görel Husén Strömqvist, Ieva Kalve, Marc Kaulisch, Vjatseslav Konovalov, Tove Kvil, Stefan Lange, Anu Lyytinen, Marte Mangset, Marvi Mikk, Christian Moldt-Jørgensen, Turid Næss, Ingela Portfelt, S. M. Abdul Quddus, Ausra Rasteniene, Alexander Rohdin, Aljona Sandgren, Åse Storhaug Hole, Marianne Tolar, Franziska Zellweger, Gro Hanne Aas, Professor Mary Henkel and Professor Maurice Kogan.
 

•  Objectives:

The objective of the course is to make a comparative analysis of the implications for the academic profession, its organisation and its identity of the emergence of 'the knowledge society' in Europe and the USA . It will explore how far changes in the two continents have affected the higher education systems, epistemic cultures and organisations within which individual and collective academic identities have been formed and developed. While the main framework for the course is that of Higher Education studies, it also draws on the disciplines of sociology, political science and normative political theory.

 

It will begin with some critical reflection on key concepts and contemporary theories, of identity, professions and the knowledge society, and the challenge of the underlying social and economic changes to academic identities. It will then introduce some alternative approaches to comparative analysis and their application to higher education, moving on to focus more closely on the USA and Europe . It will consider continuities and change in higher education systems, higher education institutions and the academic profession. A recurrent set of questions revolves round the interplay between national similarities and differences and the ideas of higher education essentialism.

 

The last part of the course will examine the implications of change for the nature and organisation of academic work and the traditionally dominant influence of disciplinary cultures in academic identities and career trajectories. It will then draw on normative poltical theory to reflect on how far assumptions about the autonomy, authority, legitimacy of the academic profession have been overturned and whether it is necessary to think about academic identities in new ways. These questions will be linked to a broader consideration of the nature and role of professions in the knowledge society.

•  Basic Readings*

*All students are urged to obtain and read these books in advance of the course.

  • Clark , B.R. (1983) The Higher Education System: Academic Organisation in Cross-National Perspective , Berkeley : University of California Press.
  • Enders, J. (ed.) (2002) Academic Staff in Europe : Changing Contexts and Conditions, Westport ( Conn. )/ London : Greenwood Press.
  • Henkel , M. (2000) Academic identities and policy change in higher education , London : Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
  • Kogan , M., Bauer, M., Bleiklie , I. and Henkel , M. (2000) Transforming Higher Education: A Comparative Study , London : Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
  • Nowotny , H., Scott, P. and Gibbons, M. (2001) Re-thinking Science: knowledge and the public in an age of uncertainty , Cambridge , Polity Press.

•  Lecture Outline and Corresponding Readings

The readings marked with † are included in the booklet the participants receive prior to the course.

Lecture 1

A map of the course and a critical reflection on concepts and theories of the knowledge society (Mary Henkel and Maurice Kogan )

This lecture will first give an outline of the main themes and structure of the course. It will then set the context of the remaining lectures by reviewing alternative approaches to understanding 'the knowledge society'.

Readings :

  • † Böhme , G. and Stehr , N (eds.) (1986) The Knowledge Society , Dordrecht : D.Reidel Publishing Company, Introduction and Chapter 1, "The Growing Impact of Scientific Knowledge on Social Relations", pp. 3-30.
  • Nowotny , H., Scott, P. and Gibbons, M. (2001) Re-thinking Science: knowledge and the public in an age of uncertainty , Cambridge : Polity Press, Chapters 1 and 3, pp. 1- 20 and 30- 49.
  • †Scott, P. (1997) "The Changing Role of the University in the Production of New Knowledge", Tertiary Education and Management , Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 5-14.
  • Trow , M (1970) "Reflections on the Transition from Mass to Universal Higher Education", Daedalus , Vol. 99, pp 1-42.

Lecture 2

Identities in contemporary societies (Mary Henkel )

Towards the end of the 20th century the concept of identity came under intense scrutiny by social theorists. The character of change in late modernity was seen as generating degrees of fragmentation, dislocation and discontinuity in social institutions and patterns of life that challenged the central meaning and bases of identity. This lecture reviews shifts in the theories of identity, and considers the extent to which they might undermine long held assumptions about identity in the academic profession in Europe and the USA .

Reading :

  • Clark , B.R. ( ed ) (1987) The Academic Profession: National, Disciplinary and Institutional Settings , Berkeley and Los Angeles : University of California Press , Chapter 9, Conclusions, pp 373-399.
  • Clark , B.R. (1997) "Small Worlds, Different Worlds: The Uniquenesses and Troubles of American Academic Professions", Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences , Vol. 126, No. 4, pp. 21-42.
  • Giddens , A. (1991) Modernity and Self-Identity: self and society in the late modern age , Cambridge , Polity Press, pp. 1-34.
  • Hall, S., Held, D. and McGrew, A. (eds.) (1992) Modernity and its Futures , Cambridge : Polity Press, Chapter 6, pp 274-291.
  • Henkel , M. (2000) Academic identities and policy change in higher education , London : Jessica Kingsley Publishers, Chapter 1, pp. 13-25.
  • Høstaker , R. (2000) "Policy Change and the Academic Profession", in Kogan , M., Bauer, M., Bleiklie , I. and Henkel , M., Transforming Higher Education: A Comparative Study , London : Jessica Kingsley Publishers, pp. 131-158.

Lecture 3

Comparative perspectives on higher education (Maurice Kogan )

This session is intended to introduce students to some of the contructs that are employed in comparative studies of higher education. Many of these derive from comparative political studies in general. There are competing conceptualisations which will be evaluated against empirical experince .

Readings :

  • Clark , B.R. (1983) The Higher Education System: Academic Organisation in Cross-National Perspective , Berkeley : University of California Press.
  • Kogan , M., Bauer, M., Bleiklie , I. and Henkel , M. (2000) Transforming Higher Education: A Comparative Study , London : Jessica Kingsley Publishers, Chapter 1, pp. 13-30.
  • † Goedegebuure , L. and van Vught , F. (eds.) (1994) Comparative Policy Studies in Higher Education , Utrecht : Lemma. Chapter 1, pp 1-34.
  • † Kogan , M. (1996) "Comparing Higher Education Systems", Higher Education , Vol. 32, pp 395-402.
  • Teichler , U. (1988) Changing Patterns of the Higher Education System: The Experience of Three Decades , London : Jessica Kingsley Publishers, pp ??

Lecture 4

Comparing the USA and Europe (Maurice Kogan )

Although many European systems partly follow American systems, there remain substantial differences in the ways in which they governed, their financing, in the nature of graduate schools and education, in the structure of degree courses and in the relationships between universities and industry.

Readings :

  • † Etzkowitz , H. (1999) "Academia Agonistes : The Triple Helix of Government-University-Industry relationships in the United States ", in Braun, D and Merrien , F-X. ( eds ) Towards a New Model of Governance for Universities? A Comparative View , London : Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
  • †Geiger, R. (1985) "Hierarchy and Diversity in American Research Universities", in Wittrock , B. and Elzinga , A. (eds.), The University Research System. The Public Policies of the Home of Scientists , Stockholm : Almquist and Wicksell International, Chapter 4, pp. 77-100.
  • Rhoades, G. and Sporn , B. (2002) "Quality Assurance in Europe and the US : Professional and Political Economic Framing of Higher Education Policy", Higher Education : Vol. 43, pp. 355-390.

Lecture 5

Higher Education Institutions and the academic profession: from classic formulations to new conceptions of roles and relationships (Maurice Kogan )

Higher education institutions have undergone considerable changes in their relationship with the state which have impacted on the ways in which they interact with academic members of faculty. Important new roles and structures have emerged which are affecting the concepts of academic professionalism.

Reading :

  • † Baldridge , J.V. (1983) " Organisational Characteristics of Colleges and Universities", in: Baldridge , J.V. and Deal, T. (eds.), The Dynamics of Organisational Change in Education , Berkeley : McCutchan Publishing Corporation.
  • † Becher , T. and Kogan , M. (1992) Process and Structure in Higher Education (2nd edition), London : Routledge , Chapter 2, pp. 6-21.
  • Kogan , M., Bauer, M., Bleiklie , I. and Henkel , M. (eds.) (2000) Transforming Higher Education: A Comparative Study , London : Jessica Kingsley Publishers, Chapter 5, pp. 109-127.
  • Mintzberg , H. (1993) Structures in Five. Designing Effective Organisations , Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, "The Professional Bureaucracy", pp. 189-213.
  • Clark , B.R. (1998) Creating Entrepreneurial Universities : organisational pathways of transformation , Oxford : Pergamon , Chapters 2 and 7, pp. 11-38 and 127-148.

Lecture 6

The discipline: still the dominant influence on academic identity? Competing knowledge regimes (Mary Henkel )

This lecture will review the role of the discipline in theories of academic identity. In the contexts of Europe and the USA , it will consider claims that disciplinary structures are being displaced in the organisation of knowledge in higher education institutions and that new knowledge regimes are emerging for the production and diffusion of knowledge in contemporary societies. It will then examine the implications for academic identities.

Readings :

  • Becher , T. and Trowler , P. (2002) Academic Tribes and Territories (2nd edition) Buckingham: SRHE and Open University Press, Chapters 2 and 3, pp 23-57.
  • † Bleiklie , I. and Byrkjeflot , H. (2002) "Changing Knowledge Regimes: Universities in a New Research Environment", Higher Education , Vol. 44, pp. 519-532.
  • Clark , B.R. (1983) The Higher Education System: Academic Organisation in Cross-National Perspective , Berkeley : University of California Press, "Work", pp. 28-71.
  • Henkel , M. (2000) Academic identities and policy change in higher education , London : Jessica Kingsley Publishers, Chapters 1 and 12, pp.13-22 and 250-268.
  • †Gibbons, M., Limoges , C., Nowotny , H., Schwartzman, S., Scott, P. and Trow , M. (1994) The New Production of Knowledge: The dynamics of science and research in contemporary societies , London : Sage, Introduction, pp. 1-45.

Lecture 7

New influences on and patterns in the organisation of academic work (Mary Henkel and Maurice Kogan )

This lecture considers the consequences for academic work in the USA and Europe of the new demands and pressures on academics and their organisations created by social, technological and economic change. They include new internal relationships and divisions of labour in universities, new patterns of academic recruitment and the development of new types of expertise. Multiple demands on university-based research and development at local, national and international level have generated multiple external relationships and new working structures. The commercialisation of knowledge has impinged on the social and normative frameworks of academic work.

Readings :

  • Clark , B.R. (1983) The Higher Education System: Academic Organisation in Cross-National Perspective , Berkeley : University of California Press, "Work", pp. 28-71.
  • † Gumport , P. (2000) "Academic Restructuring: Organisational Change and Institutional Imperatives", Higher Education , Vol. 39, pp. 67-91.
  • † Kogan , M. (1998) "The Academic-Administrative Interface", in Henkel , M. and Little, B. (eds.) Changing Relationships between Higher Education and the State , London : Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
  • † Kogan , M., Moses, I. and El- Khawas , E. (1994) Staffing Higher Education: meeting new challenges , London : Jessica Kingsley Publishers, pp. 28-63.
  • Enders, J. (ed.) (2002) Academic Staff in Europe : Changing Contexts and Conditions , Westport ( Conn. )/ London : Greenwood Press.
  • Slaughter, S. and Leslie, L (1997) Academic Capitalism: Politics, policies and the entrepreneurial university , Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, Chapter 7, pp. 208-245.

Lecture 8

Career trajectories and identity building in the academic profession (Mary Henkel )

Changing conditions and concepts of higher education and research have prompted reappraisals of the structure and functions of postgraduate education. New demands have also created new opportunities and new choices for academics and academic identity building. The lecture will consider how far there is convergence between Europe and the USA in these dimensions.

Reading :

  • Baumgratz-Gangl , G. (1996) "Developments in the Internationalisation of Higher Education in Europe", in Blumenthal, P., Goodwin, C., Smith, A. and Teichler , U. (eds.) Academic Mobility in a Changing World , London : Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
  • †El- Khawas , Elaine (2002) "Developing an academic career in a globalizing world", in Enders, Jürgen and Fulton, Oliver (eds.) Higher Education in a Globalising World. International Trends and Mutual Observations , Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 241-154.
  • Henkel , M. (2000) Academic Identities and Policy Change in Higher Education , London, Jessica Kingsley Publishers, Chapters 7, 8 and 11, pp. 150-186 and 235-249.
  • Kivinen , O., Ahola , S. and Kaipainen , P. (eds.) (1999) Towards the European Model of Postgraduate Training , University of Turku , Research Unit for the Sociology of Education (RUSE), Research Report 50, Chapters 1 and 10, pp. 1-16 and 257-281.

Lecture 9

Autonomy, legitimacy and authority of the academic profession in the knowledge society (Mary Henkel and Maurice Kogan )

This lecture examines the autonomy, legitimacy and authority of the academic profession, the links between them and the conditions which generated and sustained them. It discusses the extent to which they have been undermined by social, political and economic change and the implications for academic professional identities.

Readings :

  • Clark , B.R. (1983) The Higher Education System: Academic Organisation in Cross-National Perspective , Berkeley : University of California Press, pp. 107-134.
  • † Dogan , M (2003) "Conceptions of Legitimacy" in Hawkesworth , M. and Kogan , M. Encyclopedia of Government and Politics , 2nd edition, London : Routledge , Vol 1, pp.110-119.
  • † Gumport , P. (2000) "Academic Restructuring: Organisational Change and Institutional Imperatives" Higher Education , Vol. 39, pp. 67-91.
  • Kogan , M. (2003) "Knowledge and Power", Paper delivered at Scancor Conference, Stanford University , April. Mimeo.
  • † Neave , G. (1988) "On Being Economical with University Autonomy: being an account of the retrosepctive joys of a written constitution", Tight, M. (ed.) Academic Freedom and Responsibility , Milton Keynes : SRHE and Open University Press, pp. 31-48.
  • Nowotny , H., Scott, P. and Gibbons, M. (2001) Re-thinking Science: knowledge and the public in an age of uncertainty , Cambridge : Polity Press, Chapters 13 and 14, pp. 201-229.
  • Philip, M (1983) "Authority" in Kuper , A. and Kuper , J. ( eds ) The Social Science Encyclopaedia , London : Routledge and Kegan Paul, pp. 55-56.

Lecture 10

Review of theories of academic identity and their relevance in knowledge societies: a comparative perspective (Mary Henkel and Maurice Kogan )

This lecture re-examines theories of academic identity discussed on the course and, taking a comparative perspective, considers whether theories which explain the stability of academic professional identities retain their power. The issues questions will be linked to a broader consideration of the nature and role of professions in the Knowledge Society.

No new references for this lecture.

Other recommended readings

  • Altbach , P. (ed.) (1996) The International Academic Profession: Portraits of Fourteen Countries Princeton , New Jersey : The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.
  • Baumann, Z. (1996) "From Pilgrim to Tourist - or a Short History of Identity", in Hall, S. and du Gay, P., Questions of Cultural Identity , London : Sage, pp. 18-36.
  • Bell , D. (1973) The Coming of Post-Industrial Society. A Venture in Social Forecasting , Harmondsworth : Penguin.
  • Clark , B.R (1970) The Distinctive College: Antioch , Reed, and Swarthmore , Chicago : Aldine.
  • Clark , B.R. (1972) "The Organisational Saga in Higher Education", Administrative Science Quaterly , Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 178-184.
  • Clark , B.R. (ed.) (1987) The Academic Profession: National, Disciplinary and Institutional Settings , Berkeley and Los Angeles : University of California Press, Chapters 1-5, pp. 13-270.
  • Clark, B. R. (1995) Places of Inquiry: Research and Advanced Educatin in Modern Universities , Berkeley , Los Angeles and London : University of California Press, Chapter 6, pp . 189-210.
  • El- Khawas , E. (2003 and forthcoming) "The Push for Accountability: Policy Influences and Actors in American Higher Education", Paper given at Consortium of Higher Education Researchers, Oporto , September, Mimeo.
  • Gellert , C. (ed.) (1999) Innovation and Adaptation in Higher Education: The Changing Conditions of Advanced Teaching and Learning in Europe , London : Jessica Kingsley Publishers, Introduction, pp. 9-30.
  • Henkel , M. (2003) "Science Policy", in Hawkesworth , M. and Kogan , M. Encyclopedia of Government and Politics , 2nd edition, London : Routledge , Vol. 2, pp. 779-794.
  • Henkel , M. and Kogan , M. (1998) "Policy changes and the academic profession in England ", European Review , Vol. 6, pp. 505-523.

•  The lecturers

Mary Henkel and Maurice Kogan are professors of government and members of the Centre for the Evaluation of Public Policy at Brunel University , England . They are both specialists in public policy and evaluation, particularly in the fields of higher education and science policy. They were members of the research team that produced the five volume study (2000) of the impacts of reforms in higher education policy in England , Norway and Sweden and also have written together on the relationship between government and research (1983, 2000).

 

Mary Henkel is currently an adviser to the Swedish Higher Education Agency on quality assurance policies and has published on evaluative institutions, evaluative theory, health, higher education and science policies. Her recent work has focused primarily on academic identity and includes the book Academic Identities and Policy Change in Higher Education (2000).

 

Maurice Kogan has been dean of social sciences and head, Department of Government at Brunel University . He has published several books and articles on a wide range of areas including schools and higher education, health and science policy, and conflicts within the Labour Party. His most recent publication (2003) is Kogan , M and Hawkesworth , M. (eds.) The Routledge Encyclopaedia of Government and Politics . He has been an OECD examiner in five policy reviews and editor of Higher Education Management. He is a Foundation Academician of the Academy of Social Sciences .