Oslo Summer School in Comparative Social Science Studies 2004


 

Social Capital, Trust, and Participation
in Comparative Perspective

Dates: 2. - 6. August 2004

Lecturer: Professor Dietlind Stolle,
Department of Political Science,
McGill University, Montréal, Canada

 

The participants:
Anders Barstad, Daniel Bergh, David Berry, Lotta Björklund Larsen, Elena A. Bogdanova, Noora Ellonen, Tiago Fernandes, Michael Fortner, Kirsi Hasanen, Rune Hausstätter, Mona Hedfeldt, Jin-Lin Huang, Nicolay B. Johansen, Masingita Khandlhela, Tuija Koivunen, Riikka Korkiamäki, Stephan Kuster, Pauliina Maukonen, Fredrica Nyqvist, Eve Parts, Susanne Pernicka, Emanuele Polizzi, Helene Pristed, Diana Quartiani, Muriisa Roberts, Marit Slagsvold, Jana Stachova, Dag Tuastad, Minna Virtanen, Dag Wollebæk, Minna Zechner, Inger Österlund and Professor Dietlind Stolle.

•  Objectives:

Social capital, such as the trust between people, norms of reciprocity and citizen's participation in networks, is an important societal resource that helps to overcome collective action problems. This seminar will focus on social capital in the broadest sense. What is social capital and why is it important? How can we measure and observe it? Who benefits from social capital, and how can we produce and facilitate or destroy it? Do we really witness a decline in social capital in the Western world? We consider a variety of issues related to social capital, for example we ask: How do civic values and social ties resolve collective action problems? Is civil society necessarily a positive force, or does it lead to undesirable outcomes? Does social capital have an economic pay-off? What is the nature of the varieties of trust, and how is trust produced? Can associational membership produce trust, or is religion behind it, or does social capital have an institutional foundation? How can we distinguish different forms of social capital that exist in a variety of cultures?

 

•  Basic Readings*

* Please obtain basic readings and read in advance of the lectures.

  • Hooghe, Marc, and Stolle, Dietlind (2003) Generating Social Capital , New York : Palgrave and MacMillan.
  • Putnam, Robert (1993) Making Democracy Work , Princeton University Press.
  • Putnam, Robert (2000) Bowling alone : the collapse and revival of American community , New York : Simon and Schuster.

•  Lecture Outline and Corresponding Readings

Readings are listed below each lecture in the course outline; the recommended readings are for special interest in selected subject areas. The readings marked with � are included in the booklet the participants receive prior to the course.

 

Part I: Explaining the Phenomenon: What is it?

Lecture 1:

What are collective action problems and how can social capital be helpful here?

Readings :

  • Putnam, Robert (1993) Making Democracy Work , Princeton University Press, Chapters 1 and 4.
  • Banfield, E. (1958) The Moral Basis of a Backward Economy , Chicago : The Free Press, Chapters 1 and 6, pp. 15-32 and 107-128.
  • �Coleman, J. (1994) "Social Capital", in The Foundation of Social Theory , Cambridge : The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
  • Lin, Nan . (2001) Social Capital: A Theory of Social Structure and Action , Cambridge University Press, Chapter 2, pp. 19-28.
  • Jacobs, Jane (1961) "The uses of sidewalks: safety," in The Death and Life of Great American Cities , New York : Random House, Chapter 2, pp. 29-54.
  • Portes, Alejandro and Landolt, Patricia (2000) "Social Capital: Promise and Pitfalls of its Role in Development", Journal of Latin American Studies , Vol. 32, pp. 529-547.

Recommended reading:

  • Franklin, Jane (2003) "Review Article: Social Capital, Policy and Politics", Social Policy & Society , Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 349-352.
  • (concentrate on earlier parts): Ostrom, Elinor (1999) "Social Capital: A Fad or a Fundamental Concept?", in Dasgupta, Partha and Serageldin, Ismail (eds.), Social Capital: A Multifaceted Perspective , Washington , D.C. : The World Bank, pp. 172-214.
  • Glaeser, Edward, Laibson, David, and Sacedote, Bruce (2002) "An Economic Approach to Social Capital", The Economic Journal , Vol. 112, November, pp. 437-58 (and NBER paper w7728).

Lecture 2

Meanings and Dimensions of Trust

Readings :

  • �Uslaner, Eric (2002) The Moral Foundations of Trust , Cambridge University Press, Chapter 2 "Strategic Trust and Moralistic Trust".
  • Hardin, R. (1993) "The Street-Level Epistemology of Trust", Politics and Society , Vol. 21, pp.505-529.
  • �Brewer, M. B. (1981) "Ethnocentrism and Its Role in Interpersonal Trust" in Brewer, M. B. and Collins, B. E. (eds.), Scientific Inquiry and the Social Sciences , San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
  • Yamagishi, T., and Yamagishi, M. (1994) "Trust and Commitment in the United States and Japan ", Motivation and Emotion , Vol.18, pp. 129-166.
  • Dasgupta, P. (1988) "Trust as a Commodity" in Gambetta, D., Trust: Making and Breaking Cooperative Relations , N.Y.: Basil Blackwell, pp.49-72.
  • Wuthnow, R. (1999) "The Role of Trust in Civic Renewal" in Fullinwider, R. K., Civil Society, Democracy, and Civic Renewal . N.Y: Rowman & Littlefield.

Recommended reading:

  • Soroka, Stuart, Helliwell, John F., and Johnston, Richard (forthcoming) "Measuring and Modelling Trust" in Kay, Fiona and Johnston , Richard (eds.), Diversity, Social Capital and the Welfare State , Vancouver , BC : University of British Columbia Press .
  • Stolle, Dietlind (2002) "Trusting Strangers - The Concept of Generalized Trust in Perspective", Österreichische Zeitschrift für Politikwissenschaft; Schwerpunktheft 4, 2/4, 397-412. Vertrauen.

Lecture 3

Who is Included? The Radius of Social Capital

Readings :

  • Granovetter, M. S. (1973) "The Strength of Weak Ties", American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 78, pp. 1360-1380.
  • Blomkvist, H. (2001) "Traditional Communities, caste and democracy" in Dekker, P and Uslaner, E. M., Social Capital and Participation in Everyday Life . N.Y.: Routledge, pp. 73-88.
  • Putnam, Robert (2000) Bowling alone : the collapse and revival of American community , New York : Simon and Schuster, Chapter 1, pp. 15-28.
  • �Levi, M. (1996) "Social and Unsocial Capital: A Review Essay of Robert Putnam's Making Democracy Work", Politics and Society , Vol. 24, pp. 45-55.
  • Wuthnow, R. (2002) "Bridging the Privileged and the Marginalized?" in Putnam, R. (ed.), Democracies in Flux , Oxford UP, pp. 76-88.
  • Robert, Marsh (2003) "Social Capital, Guanxi, and the Road to Democracy in Taiwan ", Comparative Sociology , Vol. 2, Issue 4, pp.575-604.
  • Williams, Colin (2003) "Developing Voluntary Activity: Some Issues Policy Issues Arising from the 2001 Home Office Citizenship Survey", Social Policy & Society , Vol. 2, No. 4, pp.285-294.

 

Part II: Decline or Not?

Lecture 4

Is there a Decline in Social Capital?

Readings :

  • Putnam, Robert (2000) Bowling alone : the collapse and revival of American community , New York : Simon and Schuster, Section II, pp. 31-180 (With special focus on chapters 2-4, 6, 8-9).
  • Putnam, Robert (2002) "Conclusion" in Putnam, Robert (ed.), Democracies in flux : the evolution of social capital in contemporary society , Oxford : Oxford University Press, pp. 393-415.
  • Dalton , Russel J. and Wattenberg, Martin P. (2001) Parties without Partisans , Oxford : Oxford University Press, Chapter 2.
  • �Rothstein, Bo. (2001) "Social Capital in the Social Democratic Welfare State", Politics & Society , Vol. 29, No. 2, June, pp. 207-242 (36).

Recommended reading:

  • Takashi, Inoguchi (2000) "Social Capital in Japan ", Japanese Journal of Political Science , Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 73-112.
  • Hall, P. A. (1999) "Social Capital in Britain", British Journal of Political Science , Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 417-461.

Lecture 5

Critiques on Several Grounds?

Readings :

  • Ladd, C. E. (1999) "The Ladd Report", N.Y.: The Free Press, Chapter 3, pp. 25-60.
  • Pattie, Charles, Seyd, Patrick and Whiteley, Paul (2003) "Civic Attitudes and Engagement in Modern Britain", Parliamentary Affairs , Vol. 56, pp.616-633.
  • Torpe, Lars (2003) "Social Capital in Denmark : A Deviant Case?" Scandinavian Political Studies , Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 27-48.
  • Wuthnow, R. (1998) Loose Connections: Joining Together in America 's Fragmented Communities , Cambridge : Harvard University Press, Chapters 1 and 2, pp. 9-57.
  • Lowndes, Vivien (2000) "Women and Social Capital: A Comment on Hall's 'Social Capital in Britain '", British Journal of Political Science , Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 533-537.
  • Scammel, Margaret, (2001) "Internet and Civic Engagement", Mimeo.

Recommended reading:

  • Stolle, D. and Hooghe, M. (forthcoming) "Inaccurate, Exceptional, One-sided or Irrelevant? The Debate About the Alleged Decline of Social Capital and Civic Engagement in Western Societies", ( British Journal of Political Science ).

 

Part III: Generating Social Capital

Lecture 6

Roots and causes: The Role of Voluntary Associations and Civic Traditions: The Problem of the Causal Mechanism

Readings :

  • �Almond, Gabriel A. and Verba, Sidney (1963) Civic Culture , Chapter 11, "Organizational Membership and Civic Competence", pp. 244-265.
  • Putnam, R. (1993) Making Democracy Work , Princeton University Press, Chapters 5 and 6.
  • �Stolle, D. (2001) "Getting to Trust," in Dekker, P and Uslaner, E. M., Social Capital and Participation in Everyday Life , N.Y.: Routledge, pp.118-133.
  • Hooghe, M. (2003) "Value Congruence within Associations: Ethnocentrism in Belgian Organizations", in Hooghe, M. and Stolle, D., Generating social capital : civil society and institutions in comparative perspective , New York : Palgrave Macmillan.
  • �Erickson, Bonnie and Nosanchuk, T. A. (1990) "How an apolitical Association Politicizes", Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology , Vol. 27. No. 2, pp.206-219.
  • Wollebæk, Dag and Selle, Per (2003) "How Important is Face-To-Face Interaction?", in Hooghe, M. and Stolle, D. Generating Social Capital , New York : Palgrave and MacMillan.

Recommended reading:

  • Claiborn, Michel and Martin, Paul (2000) "Trusting and Joining? An Empirical Test of the Reciprocal Nature of Social Capital", Political Behaviour , Vol. 22, No. 4, pp.267-291.
  • Ayala, Louis (2000) "Trained for Democracy: The Differing Effects of Voluntary and Involuntary Organizations on Political Participation", Political Research Quarterly , Vol. 53, No. 1, pp.99-115.
  • Freitag, Markus (2003) "Social Capital in (Dis)similar Democracies: The Development of Generalized Trust in Japan and Switzerland ", Comparative Political Studies , Vol. 36, No. 8, pp.936-966.
  • Teorell, Jan (2003) "Linking Social Capital to Political Participation: Voluntary Associations and Networks of Recruitment in Sweden ", Scandinavian Political Studies , Vol. 26, No. 1, pp.49-66.

Lecture 7

Roots and Causes: The Role of Institutions

Readings :

  • �Tarrow, Sidney (1996) "Making Social Science Work Across Space and Time", American Political Science Review , Vol. 90, June, pp. 389-97.
  • �Berman, Sheri. (1997) "Civil Society and the Collapse of the Weimar Republic ", World Politics . Vol. 49, No.3, pp. 401-429.
  • Howard, Marc (2002) "The Weakness of Post-Communist Civil Society", Journal of Democracy , Vol. 13, No1, pp.157-169.
  • Skocpol, Theda, Ganz, Marshall and Munson, Ziad (2000) "A nation of organizers: The institutional origins of civic voluntarism in the United States ", The American Political Science Review , Vol. 94, September, pp. 527-546.
  • Rothstein, Bo. and Stolle, Dietlind (2003) "Social Capital and Street-Level Bureaucracy: An Institutional Theory of Generalized Trust", Hooghe, M. and Stolle, D., Generating Social Capital , New York : Palgrave and MacMillan.
  • �Stolle, Dietlind (2004) "Communities, Social Capital and Local Government--Generalized Trust in Regional Settings", in Prakash, S. and Selle, P. (eds.), Investigating Social Capital: Comparative Perspectives on Civil Society, Participation and Governance , India : Sage, pp. 184-206.
  • Metler, Suzanne (2002) "Bringing the State Back Into Civic Engagement: Policy Feedback Effects of the G.I. Bill for WWII Veterans", American Political Science Review , Vol. 96, No. 2, pp.351-365.

Recommended reading:

  • Paxton, Pamela (2002) "Social Capital and Democracy: An Interdependent Relationship", American Sociological Review , Vol.67, No. 2, pp.254-277.
  • Inglehart, R. (1999) "Trust, Well-being and Democracy", in Warren , M. E., Democracy and Trust , Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, pp. 88-120.
  • (concentrate on later parts): Ostrom, Elinor. (1999) "Social Capital: A Fad or a Fundamental Concept?" in Dasgupta, Partha and Serageldin, Ismail (eds.), Social Capital: A Multifaceted Perspective , Washington , D.C. : The World Bank, pp.172-214.
  • Putnam, R. D. (2000) Bowling alone : the collapse and revival of American community , New York : Simon and Schuster, Section III: Why?, pp. 183-284 (get main ideas).

Lecture 8

Roots and Causes: The Role of Religion

Readings :

  • Wuthnow, R. (1999) " Mobilizing Civic Engagement: The Changing Impact of Religious Involvement", in Skocpol T. and Fiorina P. M., Civic Engagement in American Democracy , N.Y: Russell Sage Foundation, pp. 332-363.
  • �Greeley, A. (2001) "Coleman Revisted: Religious Structures as a Source of Social Capital", in Edwards, B., Foley, M. and Diani, M., Beyond Tocqueville: Civil Society and the Social Capital Debate in Comparative Perspective , Hanover , NH : University Press of New England , pp. 235-242.
  • Hart, de J. (2001) "Religion and Volunteering in the Netherlands ", in Dekker, P and Uslaner, E. M., Social Capital and Participation in Everyday Life , N.Y.: Routledge, pp. 88-103.
  • Harris, Frederick C. (2001) " Black Churches and Civic Traditions: Outreach, Activism, and the Politics of Funding of Faith-Based Ministries", in Walsh, Andrew, Can Charitable Choice Work? Leonard Greenberg Center for the Study of Religion in Public Life.
  • �Schoenfeld, Eugen (1978) "Image of Man: The Effect of Religion on Trust", Review of Religious Research , Vol. 20, Fall, pp. 61-67.
  • Verba, S., Schlozman, K. L. and Brady, H. E. (1995) Voice and equality : civic voluntarism in American politics , Cambridge , Mass. : Harvard University Press, Chapter 11.

 

Part IV: Consequences and Outlook

Lecture 9

Consequences of Social Capital

Readings :

  • Putnam, R. (1993) Making Democracy Work , Princeton : Princeton University Press, Chapters 2 and 3 (Skim), Review again Chapter 6.
  • Putnam, R. (2000) Bowling alone : the collapse and revival of American community , New York : Simon and Schuster, Section IV: So What?, Chapters 16-22.
  • �Knack, S. and Keefer, P. (1997) "Does Social Capital Have An Economic Payoff? A Cross-Country Investigation", Quarterly Journal of Economics , Vol. 112, pp.1251-1288.
  • Varshney, Ashutosh, (2001) "Ethnic Conflict and Civil Society: India and Beyond", World Politics , Vol. 53, No. 3.
  • Knack, Stephen (2002) "Social Capital and the Quality of Government: Evidence from the States", American Journal of Political Science , Vol. 46, No. 4, pp.772-785.
  • Triglia, Carlo (2001) "Social Capital and Local Development", European Journal of Social Theory , Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 427-442.

Recommended reading:

  • Palloni, Alberto et. al, (2001) "Social Capital and International Migration: A Test Using Information on Family Networks", American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 106, No. 5, pp. 1262-1298.
  • Renshon, Stanley (2000) "Political Leadership as Social Capital: Governing in a Divided National Culture", Political Psychology , Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 199-226.
  • Clark, Ed (2000) "The Role of Social Capital in Developing Czech Private Business", Work, Employment & Society , Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 439-458.
  • Krishna , Anirudh (2002) "Enhancing Political Participation in Democracies: What is the Role of Social Capital?" Comparative Political Studies , Vol. 35, No. 4, pp.437-460.

Lecture 10

Social Capital and the Future of Democracy?

Readings :

  • Putnam, Robert (2000) Bowling alone : the collapse and revival of American community , New York : Simon and Schuster, Part V: What is to be Done?
  • �Norris, P. (1999) "Conclusion: The Growth of Critical Citizens and its Consequences", in Norris, P. (ed.), Critical Citizens , Oxford : Oxford University Press pp. 257-272.
  • �Lin, Nan , (2001) Social Capital : A Theory of Social Structure and Action , Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, Chapter 12: Cybernetworks and the Global Village, The Rise of Social Capital, pp. 210-241.
  • Ulrich Beck . The Reinvention of Politics , Cambridge : Polity Press, Selected Chapters.
  • �Stolle, Micheletti and Hooghe (2004) "Politics in the Supermarket Political Consumerism as a Form of Political Participation", Manuscript.
  • �Perretti, J. with Micheletti, M. (2003). "The Nike Sweatshop Email: Political Consumerism, Internet, and Culture Jamming," in Micheletti, M., Føllesdal, A. and Stolle, D. (eds.), Politics, Products, and Markets. Exploring Political Consumerism Past and Present , New Brunswick : Transaction Press.

•  The lecturer

Dietind Stolle ( Ph.D. Princeton University , 2000) is Assistant Professor in Political Science at McGill University , Montréal , Canada . She conducts research and has published in a variety of areas, such as voluntary associations, trust, institutional foundations of social capital, new forms of political participation, and more recently started work on media framing and political mobilization. Her work has appeared or is forthcoming, for example, in the journals American Behavioral Scientist , British Journal of Political Science , Political Psychology , Scandinavian Political Studies and Österreichische Zeitschrift für Politikwissenschaft and in various edited volumes. Her recent publications include Generating Social Capital: Civil Society and Institutions in Comparative Perspective (co-editor with Marc Hooghe Palgrave, New York 2003). She is also the co-editor of Politics, Products, and Markets - Exploring Political Consumerism Past and Present , 2003, New Brunswick : Transaction Press (with Michele Micheletti, Stockholm University and Andreas Føllesdal, University of Oslo ). She has co-organized an ECPR workshop on 'Social Capital, Voluntary Associations and Interest Mediation' at the Copenhagen ECPR Joint Sessions in 2000. In 2004, she co-organizes (with Marc Hooghe) a ECPR workshop on 'Emerging Repertoires of Political Action. Toward a Systematic Study of Postconventional Forms of Participation.'