Oslo Summer School in Comparative Social Science Studies 2002

Electoral Programs of Political Parties

Lecturer: Professor Hans-Dieter Klingemann
Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin f�r Sozialforschung (WZB) , Germany
Dates: 29. July - 2. August 2002

This course deals with what political parties tell voters in their election programs. Normally considered quite unimportant it will be demonstrated that this information helps to understand important political processes of representative democracy. What do political parties advertise? Do voters have a choice? Is there a left-right dimension? How important are programmatic similarities and differences for the formation of government coalitions? Is there a relationship of what parties say and what they do as government or opposition? These and related questions will be discussed in a comparative perspective offering empirical evidence both from parties of "old" and "new" democracies.

General Remarks
All students are advised to buy the following book:

This book comes with a CD Rom which contains the party manifesto data for 25 Western democracies. These data may be used for course work.

Outline of Lectures
Below required readings for the various lectures are marked with a star. All material with a star is either part of the "Mapping Policy Preferences" book or available via the course compendium to be sent to the participants in advance.

Lecture 1: The History of a Research Program
The intellectual history, the organizational structure and the data collections of the Party Manifesto Research Group and its successor projects are described.


Lecture 2: Theoretical Concerns: Why it is Important to Know What Parties Write in Election Programs
Empirical data on policy positions of political parties are essential to test theories of party competition, coalition formation and policy decision-making. The most important approaches making use of party manifesto data will be discussed.


Lecture 3: Methodological Concerns: Going Quantitative With Text
An overview will be given of how to collect and submit election programs to quantitative content analysis. Special attention will be given to the issues of reliability and validity. New approaches of computerized content analysis will be mentioned.


Lecture 4: Policy Positions, Thematic Emphases, and Programmatic Profiles of Political Parties
The problems discussed deal with the dimensionality of the policy space and the possibility of creating generalized policy measures such as a left-right score. The problem of classifying parties by party families will also be discussed.


Lecture 5: A Dynamic Perspective on the Content of Party Election Programs: Mapping Trends Over Time
What is the perspective of continuity and change in programmatic profiles of political parties? Do parties become more alike? Is there an end of party ideology? These problems will be dealt with from the perspective of party competition.


Lecture 6: On the Communication of Parties and Voters
How do political parties and voters communicate? How do party positions and voter orientations match? These problems will be discussed using the left-right dimension and the European dimension as empirical examples.


Lecture 7: Programmatic Profiles of Political Parties and Coalition Formation
Does policy proximity matter for coalition formation? Results of studies using manifesto data will be discussed.


Lecture 8: Programmatic Profiles of Political Parties and Policy Outputs
Do programmatic profiles of political parties influence parties' policies once on government? Do parties keep promises made in election programs? These and related problems are discussed in this lecture.


Lecture 9: Going East: Party Election Programs in the New Democracies of Central and Eastern Europe. Overview of a New Data Collection
A new data collection has been generated for the emerging democracies of Central and Eastern Europe. Theoretical and methodological concerns are discussed.


Lecture 10: Party Families and the Left-Right Dimension in the New Party Systems of Central and Eastern Europe
A comparison of party families in the "old" and "new" democracies will be presented as well as an exploration of the adequacy of the Left-Right dimension in the emerging party systems of Central and Eastern Europe.


Basic Books

The Lecturer
Hans-Dieter Klingemann (born 1937 in Einbeck, Germany) earned his academic degrees from the University of Cologne (1961: Dipl.-Kfm.; 1966: Dr. rer. pol.) and from the University of Mannheim (1978: Dr. habil.). He has held positions at the University of Cologne (1966-74: Assistant Professor; Zentralarchiv f�r empirische Sozialforschung), the Center for Survey Research (ZUMA), Mannheim (1974-80: Deputy Director), the Free University of Berlin (1980-: Professor of Political Science) and the Social Science Research Center Berlin (1989-: Director, Research Unit on Institutions and Social Change).

In 1988-89 he was appointed C.C. Garvin Visiting Endowed Professor at the Virginia Polytechnic Insti-tute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, and in 1999 Alfred-Grosser-Professor at the Institut d'�tudes Politiques de Paris. Since 1995 he is a Research Fellow at the Center for the Study of Democracy, University of California, Irvine. Professor Klingemann has also taught at the University of Bonn (1972/73), the University of T�bingen (1976/77), the University of Michigan (1970, 1974, 1987, 1997), the University of Georgia (1973), the European University Institute, Florence (1978), and the State University of New York, Binghamton, N.Y. (1987).

Professionally Professor Klingemann has served as Council Member of the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research, Ann Arbor, Michigan (1973/74), as Vice-President (1982/83) and President of the International Society of Political Psychology (1986/87), as Member of the Executive Committee of the European Consortium for Political Research (1988/94), as Council Member of the German Political Science Associa-tion (1988/94), as Vice-President of the International Political Science Association (1994/97), and as President of the German Paul Lazarsfeld-Society (1994/99). He is mem-ber of several editorial boards of professional journals.

His publications comprise eleven books (including co-authored books), seventeen edited books, two book series (general series co-editor), and well above a hundred journal articles or book chapters (author or co-author). Among his most recent publications are:

Professor Klingemann has received several fellowships and has been a Stein Rokkan Memorial Lecturer (University of Bergen, 1996) and a Fritz-Thyssen Lecturer (Georgetown University, 1997). In 1999 he was invited to lecture on the impact of electoral systems in the Slovenian Parliament. 2000/01 he served as member of the "Reflection Group on the Political Dimension of Enlargement" chaired by Jean-Luc Dehaene and set up jointly by the Robert Schuman Centre of the European University Institute in Florence and the Group of Policy Advisors of the European Commission.

In 1999 Professor Klingemann was elected foreign member of the Finnish Academy of Science and Letters and in 2001 he became member of the Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina. He is also Honorary Senator of the University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, and doctor honoris causa of �rebro University, Sweden. His current research is in the field of consolidation and persistence of democratic political systems with special attention to European integration.