Oslo Summer School in Comparative Social Science Studies 1996
Comparative Analysis of Values and Political Trust: Data Analysis of World Values Studies I and II
Main discipline: Political Science
Lecturers: Professor Oddbjørn Knutsen and Professor Ola Listhaug
Institutions: University of Oslo, Norway, and University of Trondheim (NTNU), Norway
Dates: 5 - 9 August, 1996
The first part of the course addresses conceptual and theoretical issues related to public opinion with particular focus in political support and legitimacy. Problems of measurement, and explanations of various aspects of trust in government are reviewed, and findings about confidence levels over time, between nations, and over different types of institutions are discussed. Various data sources will be focused upon explicitly, and the relevant questions in the World Values Surveys will be discussed in particular.
The second part of the course takes up the discussion about political value change in advanced industrial societies and its causes and consequences. Theories and empirical findings about political value orientations and value change are the central themes. Three sets of value orientations are focused upon, namely religious/secular, left-right materialist and materialist/post-materialist value orientations. It is focused on constraint between various items intended to tap the respective orientations, trends in distributions over time and in a comparative setting, and socio-structural antecedents of each of these sets of orientations. Political consequences of value priorites are discussed.In addition to discussing indicators of various value orientations in the 1990-91 World Values Survey, the course provide some overview of indicators in other comparative data sets.
In order to participate in the course, it is necessary to have basic knowledge of SPSS for Windows. In addition to lectures, data analysis of the 1990-91 World Values Survey is a part of the course. Data facilities will be available for students to do analysis based in this data set. There will also be computer staff from the Norwegian Social Science Data Services available for afternoon computer sessions and for assistance with data sets and technical matters.
This course comprises two parts:
- Part 1 (lecture 1-5): Theories and findings about political opinion with an emphasis on political support (Professor Listhaug)
- Part 2 (lecture 6-10): Political value orientations and value change in Western Europe. The Impact of values. Data sources on political values and conflict lines (Professor Knutsen)
- Birch, Anthony H. 1983. "Overload, Ungovernability and Delegitimation: The Theories of the British Case." British Journal of Political Science 14: 135-160.
- Caldeira, Gregory A. 1986. "Neither the Purse Nor the Sword: Dynamics of Public Confidence in the Supreme Court." American Political Science Review 80: 1209-1226.
- Citrin, Jack. 1974."Comment: The Political Relevance of Trust in Government." American Political Science Review 68: 973-988.
- Easton, David. 1975. "A Re-assessment of the Concept of Political Support." British Journal of Political Science 5: 435-457.
- Finifter, Ada, and Ellen Michiewicz. 1992. "Redefining the Political System of the USSR: Mass Support for Political Change." American Political Science Review 86: 857-874.
- Grofman, Bernard. 1993: Information, Participation, and Choice, Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press
- Jennings, M. Kent, and Jan van Deth. 1990. "Conclusion: Some Consequences for Systems and Governments." In Continuities in Political Action, M. Kent Jennings, Jan van Deth, et al.. Berlin: de Gruyter.
- Lau, Richard R. 1982. "Negativity in Political Perception." Political Behavior 4: 353-378.
- Linz, Juan J. 1988. "Legitimacy of /Democracy and the Socioeconomic System." Pp. 65-113 in Mattei Dogan (ed.): Comparing Pluralist Democracies, Boulder, CO: Westview.
- Listhaug, Ola, and Matti Wiberg. 1995 "Confidence in Political and Private Institutions." Chapter 10 in Citizens and the State, eds. Hans-Dieter Klingemann and Dieter Fuchs. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Lodge, Milton & Kathleen McGraw (eds.). 1995: Political Judgment. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press
- Macdonald, Stuart Elaine, Ola Listhaug and George Rabinowitz. 1991: Issues and Party Support in Multiparty Systems, American Political Science Review 85: 1107-1131.
- Mansbridge, Jane (ed.). 1989: Beyond Self-interest. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, chaps. 1 and 9.
- McGraw, Kathleen M. 1990. "Avoiding Blame: An Experimental Investigation of Political Excuses and Justifications." British Journal of Political Science 20: 119-142.
- Miller, Arthur H. 1974. "Political Issues and Trust in Government: 1964-1970". American Political Science Review 68: 951-972.
- Miller Arthur H., and Ola Listhaug 1990. "Political Parties and Confidence in Government: A Comparison of Norway, Sweden and the United States." British Journal of Political Science 20: 357-386.
- Weatherford, M. Stephen. 1992. "Measuring Political Legitimacy." American Political Science Review 86: 149-166.
- Weil, Frederick D. 1989. "The Sources and Structure of Legitimation in Western Democracies." American Sociological Review 54: 682-706.
- Zaller, John. 1992: The Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, chaps. 1 and 2.
- Dobbelaere, Karel & Wolfgang Jagodzinski (1995a): 'Secularization and church religiosity'. Chapter 4 in Jan van Deth and Elinor Scarbrough (eds.): The Impact of Values. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 40 p.
- Dobbelaere, Karel & Wolfgang Jagodzinski (1995b): 'Religious cognitions and beliefs'. Chapter 7 in Jan van Deth and Elinor Scarbrough (eds.): The Impact of Values. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 18 p.
- Flanagan, Scott & Aie-Rie Lee (1988): 'Explaining value change and its political implications in eleven advanced industrial democracies'. Paper presented on the fourteenth "World congress of the International Political Science Association", Washington, 28. august - 1. september. 50 p.
- Hellevik, Ottar (1993): 'Postmaterialism as a Dimension of culture change', International Journal of Public Opinion Research 5: 211-233. 23 p.
- Inglehart, Ronald (1990): Cultural Shift in Advanced Industrial Society. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 200 p.
- Knutsen, Oddbjørn (1990a): "Materialist and Post-Materialist Values and Social Structure in the Nordic Countries: A Comparative Study". Comparative Politics, 23: 85-104. 20 p.
- Knutsen, Oddbjørn (1995a): 'Left-right materialist value orientations', Chapter 6 in The Impact of Values, eds Jan van Deth and Elinor Scarbrough. Foundation. Oxford University Press. 37 p.
- Knutsen, Oddbjørn (1995b): 'Party Choice', Chapter 17 in The Impact of Values, eds. Jan van Deth and Elinor Scarbrough. Oxford University Press. 31 p
- Knutsen, Oddbjørn & Elinor Scarbrough (1995): 'Cleavage Politics'. Chapter 18 in The Impact of Values, eds. Jan van Deth and Elinor Scarbrough. Oxford University Press. 32 p.
- Van Deth, Jan & Elinor Scarbrough (1995):'The Concept of Values'. Chapter 1 in The Impact of Values, eds. Jan van Deth and Elinor Scarbrough. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 28 p.
- Abramson, Paul R. 1983. Political Attitudes in America. San Francisco: Freeman.
- Abramson, Paul R. 1990. "The Decline of Over-Time Comparability in the National Election Studies." Public Opinion Quarterly 54:177-190.
- Almond, Gabriel, and Sidney Verba 1963. The Civic Culture. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
- Almond, Gabriel, and Sidney Verba (eds.). 1980. The Civic Culture Revisited. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
- Buchanan, James M. 1991. The Economics and the Ethics of Constitutional Order. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
- Citrin, Jack, and Donald Philip Green. 1986. "Presidential Leadership and Trust in Government". British Journal of Political Science 16: 431-453.
- Citrin, Jack, Herbert McClosky, J. Merrill Shanks and Paul M. Sniderman. 1975. "Personal and Political Sources of Political Alienation." British Journal of Political Science 5: 1-31.
- Converse, Philip E. 1972. "Change in the American Electorate." In Angus Campbell and Philip E. Converse (eds.): The Human Meaning of Social Change, New York: Russell Sage.
- Crozier, Michael J., Samuel P. Huntington, and Joji Watanuki 1975. The Crisis of Legitimacy. New York: New York University Press.
- Döring, Herbert. 1990. "Aspekte des Vertrauens in Institutionen." Zeitschrift für Soziologie 19: 73-89.
- Döring, Herbert. 1992. "Higher Education and Confidence in Institutions." West European Politics 15: 126-146.
- Easton, David 1965. A Systems Analysis of Political Life. New York: Wiley.
- Finifter, Ada 1970. "Dimensions of Political Alienation." American Political Science Review 64: 389-410.
- Fuchs, Dieter. 1989. Die Unterstützung des politischen Systems der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.
- Gamson, William A. 1968. Power and Discontent. Homewood, IL: Dorsey.
- House, James S., and William M. Mason. 1975. "Political Alienation in America." American Sociological Review 40: 123-147.
- Howell, Susan E., and Deborah Fagan. 1988. "Race and Trust in Government." Public Opinion Quarterly 52: 343-350.
- Kaase, Max, and Kenneth Newton 1988. Beliefs in Government, project proposal. Strasbourg: European Science Foundation.
- Kahn, Joan R., and William M. Mason 1987. "Political Alienation, Cohort Size, and the Easterlin Hypothesis." American Sociological Review 52: 155-169.
- Lapalombara, Joseph. 1987. Democracy Italian Style. New Haven: Yale University Press.
- Lau, Richard R. 1985. "Two Explanations for Negativity Effects in Political Behavior." American Journal of Political Science 29: 119-138.
- Lipset, Seymour Martin, and William Schneider. 1983. The Confidence Gap. New York: Free Press.
- Listhaug, Ola 1984. "Confidence in Institutions." Acta Sociologica 27: 111-122.
- Listhaug, Ola 1989. Citizen, Parties and Norwegian Electoral Politics 1957-1985: An Empirical Study. Trondheim: Tapir.
- Listhaug, Ola. N.d. "The Dynamics of Political Trust." In Citizens and the State, eds. Hans-Dieter Klingemann, and Dieter Fuchs. Forthcoming.
- Markovits, Andrei S., and Mark Silverstein 1988. "The Politics of Scandal: Power and Process in Liberal Democracies". Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington, DC, August 28-September 1.
- Mason, William M., and Joan R. Kahn 1989. "Reply to O'Brien and Gwartney-Gibbs." American Sociological Review 54: 480-484.
- Miller, Arthur H. 1983. "Is Confidence Rebounding?." Public Opinion, no. 6: 16-20.
- Miller, Arthur H., and Stephen A. Borelli 1987. "Renewed Confidence in Government: Reagan Legacy or Missed Opportunity". Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Study of Political Psychology, San Francisco, July 4-7.
- Miller, Arthur H., and Ola Listhaug. 1993. "Ideology and Political Alienation." Scandinavian Political Studies 16 (in print).
- Miller, Warren E., Arthur H. Miller, and Edward J. Schneider. 1980. American National Election Studies Sourcebook. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Niemi, Richard G., John Mueller, and Tom W. Smith. 1989. Trends in Public Opinion. New York: Greenwood.
- O'Brien, Robert M., and Patricia A. Gwartney-Gibbs 1989. "Relative Cohort Size and Political Alienation: Three Methodological Issues and a Replication Supporting the Easterlin Hypothesis." American Sociological Review 54: 476-480.
- Parry, Geraint. 1976. "Trust, Distrust, and Consensus." British Journal of Political Science 6: 129-142.
- Rogowski, Ronald. 1974. Rational Legitimacy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
- Schuman, Howard, and Stanley Presser. 1981. Questions and Answers in Attitude Surveys. New York: Academic Press.
- Westle, Bettina. 1989. Politische Legitimität. Baden-Baden: Nomos.
- Wiberg, Matti 1986. "Wrong Persons Are Making Right Decisions without Hearing US: Political Trust, Responsiveness of Politicians and Satisfactions with Governmental Policies in Finland." Scandinavian Political Studies 9: 141-156.
- Widmaier, Ulrich. 1988. "Tendencies toward an Erosion of Legitimacy", in M. Dogan, ed, Comparing Pluralist Democracies. Boulder, CO: Westview.
- Wright, James D. 1976. The Dissent of the Governed. New York: Academic Press.
- Wright, James D. 1975. "Does Acquiescence Bias the "Index of Political Efficacy"?" Public Opinion Quarterly 39: 219-226.
- Abramson, Paul R. & Ronald Inglehart (1992): 'Generational Replacement and Value Change in Eight West European Societies'. British Journal of Political Science 30: 183-228
- Abramson, Paul R. & Ronald Inglehart (1994a): 'Economic Security and Value Change'. American Political Science Review 88:336-354
- Abramson, Paul R. & Ronald Inglehart (1994b): 'Education, Security, and Postmaterialism: A Comment on Duch and Taylor's "Postmaterialism and the Economic Condition"', American Journal of Political Science 38: 797-814.
- Böltken, Ferdinand & Jagodzinski, Wolfgang (1985): 'Postmaterialism in the European Community, 1970-1980: Insecure value orientations in an environment of insecurity'. Comparative Political Studies, 17:453-484.
- Clark, Harold D. & Nitish Dutt (1991): 'Measuring Value Change in Western Industrial Societies', American Political Science Review 85: 905-920
- Dobbelaere, Karel & Wolfgang Jagodzinski (1995c): 'Religious and Ethical Pluralism'. Chapter 8 in Jan van Deth and Elinor Scarbrough (eds.): The Impact of Values. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Duch, Raymond M. & Michaell A. Taylor (1993): 'Postmaterialism and the Economic Condition', American Journal of Political Science 37: 747-779.
- Duch, Raymond M. & Michaell A. Taylor (1994): 'A Reply to Abramson and Inglehart's "Education, Security, and Postmaterialism"', American Journal of Political Science 38: 815-824.
- Flanagan, Scott C. (1982a): 'Changing values in Advanced Industrial Societies - Inglehart's Silent Revolution from the Perspective of Japanese Findings'. Comparative Political Studies, 14: 403-444.
- Flanagan, Scott (1982b): 'Measuring value change in Advanced Industrial Societies - A Rejoinder to Inglehart'. Comparative Political Studies, 15: 99-128.
- Flanagan, Scott C. (1987): 'Value Changes in Industrial Societies'. American Political Science Review, 81: 1303-1319.
- Goldthorpe, John (1982): 'On the Service class, its formation and future'. Pp. 162-186 in Anthony Giddens & Gavin Mackensie (ed.): Social class and the Division of Labour. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Inglehart, Ronald (1977): The Silent Revolution - Changing Values and Political Styles among Western Publics. Princeton, N.J.:Princeton University Press.
- Inglehart, Ronald (1979): 'Value Priorities and Socioeconomic Change'. Chap. 11 in Samuel Barnes. & Max Kaase, ed.: Political Action - Mass Participation in five Western Democracies. London: Sage.
- Inglehart, Ronald (1982): 'Changing Values in Japan and the West'. Comparative Political Studies, 14: 445-479.
- Inglehart, Ronald (1985): 'New perspectives on value change: Responses to Lafferty and Knutsen,Savage, Böltken & Jagodzinski. Comparative Political Studies, 17:485-532.
- Knutsen, Oddbjørn (1988): 'The Impact of Structural and Ideological Party Cleavages in West European Democracies: A Comparative Empirical Analysis'. British Journal of Political Science, 18: 323-352.
- Knutsen, Oddbjørn (1989): "Cleavage Dimensions in 10 West European Countries - a Comparative Empirical Analysis". Comparative Political Studies, 21 : 495-534.
- Knutsen, Oddbjørn (1990b): "The Materialist/Post-Materialist Value Dimension as a Party Cleavage in the Nordic Countries," West European Politics, 13: 258-274.
- Knutsen, Oddbjørn (1995c): 'The Impact of Old Politics and New Politics Value Orientations on Party Choice - A Comparative Study', Journal of Public Policy 15: 1-63
- Knutsen, Oddbjørn (1995d):'Value Orientations, political conflicts and left-right identification: A comparative study', European Journal of Political Research 28: 63-93
- Kitschelt, Herbert (1984):'Left-libertarian parties: Explaining innovation in competitive party systems'. World Politics, XL: 194-234.
- Lafferty, William & Knutsen, Oddbjørn (1984): 'Leftist and Rightist Ideology in a Social Democratic State: An Analysis of Norway in the Midst of the Conservative Resurgence'. British Journal of Political Science 14:345-367.
- Lafferty, William M. & Knutsen, Oddbjørn (1985): 'Postmaterialism in a Social Democratic State: An Analysis of the Distinctness and Congruity of the Inglehart Value Syndrome in Norway'. Comparative Political Studies, 17:411-430.
- Müller-Rommel, Ferdinand (ed.) (1989): New Politics in Western Europe. The Rise and Success of Green Parties and Alternative Lists. Boulder, San Francisco & London: Westview Press.
- Rokeach, Milton (1973): The Nature of Human Values. London: The Free Press
- Scarbrough, Elinor (1995): 'Materialist-Postmaterialist Value Orientations'. Chapter 5 in Jan van Deth and Elinor Scarbrough (eds.): The Impact of Values. Oxford: Oxford University Press. .
- Van Deth, Jan (1983): 'The persistence of materialist and postmaterialist value orientations'. European Journal of Political Research 11:63-79.
- Van Deth, Jan & Elinor Scarbrough (eds.) (1995): The Impact of Values. Volume 4 in "Beliefs in Government". European Science Foundation. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapters Nos. 13-16 about 'Political Efficacy and Trust', 'Political Interest', Grass-Roots Activities' and 'Electoral Participation', respectively.
First Lecture: The Conceptualisation and Measurement of Public Opinion
- Zaller (1992: chaps. 1 and 2); McGraw and Lodge (1995: chap. 1)
Second Lecture: Explaining public Opinion: Social Psychology and Rational Choice
- Grofman (1993: chap. 12); Mansbridge (1989: chaps 1 and 9); Macdonald, Listhaug and Rabinowitz (1991)
Third lecture: Conceptualization and Dimensions of Political Support
- Easton (1975); Weatherford (1992); Jennings and van Deth (1990); Linz (1988)
Fourth and fifth lecture: Trust in Government: Theory and Empirical Evidence
- Birch (1983); Caldeira (1986); Citrin (1974); Finifter and Michiewitz (1992); Lau (1982); Listhaug and Wiberg (1995); McGraw (1990); Miller (1974), Miller and Listhaug (1990)
Sixth lecture: Introduction. Briefly about the value concept. Religious/secular value orientations.
- van Deth and Scarbrough 1995; Dobbelaere & Jagodzinski (1995a; 1995b); Rokeach (1973:chap. 1); Dobbelaere & Jagodzinski (1995c); Inglehart (1990: chap. 6)
Seventh lecture: Left-Right materialist orientations. Introduction about materialist/post- materialist value orientations
Inglehart (1990: 248-258; 289-300; Knutsen (1995a), Goldthorpe (1982); Lafferty & Knutsen (1984).
Eighth lecture: The debate about value change and the materialist/post-materialist value orientations
- Hellevik (1993); Inglehart (1990: chap.2-5); Flanagan & Lee (1988: 1-29);Knutsen (1990a); Abramson and Inglehart (1992; 1994a; 1994b); Böltken & Jagodzinski, (1985): Clarke & Dutt (1991); Duch and Taylor (1993; 1994); Inglehart (1977: chap. 1-3; 1979; 1982; 1985); Flanagan (1982a; 1982b; 1987); Lafferty & Knutsen (1985); Scarbrough (1995); van Deth (1983).
Ninth and tenth lecture: The impact of values with particular focus on the impact on party choice
- Inglehart (1990: 258-288, 305-310); Flanagan & Lee (1988: 29-50); Knutsen (1995b); Knutsen & Scarbrough (1995); Inglehart (1977: chap. 7-9); Müller-Rommel (1989); Kitschelt (1984); Knutsen (1988; 1989; 1990b; 1995c; 1995d), chapters 13-16 in Van Deth & Scarbrough (1995).