Oslo Summer School in Comparative Social Science Studies 1996
Nations, Nationalism and National Schools from the Perspective of Anthropology and Sociology: A Comparative Approach
Main disciplines: Social Anthropology, Sociology
Lecturer: Professor Jean-Claude Galey
Institution: Ecole des hautes �tudes en sciences sociales, France
and University of Oslo, Norway
Dates: 5 - 9 August, 1996
This course will provide a comprehensive approach to the study of ideas and historical processes which preside over the shaping of the nation and assess it as an integral part of modern values. In these matters, Europeans do not speak with one voice. The course thus contrasts national variants in a comparative fashion, opposing those scholars who rely on a purely political tradition linked to the reality of the State, and the value of citizenship to those who base their understanding on a community of people territorially and culturally ordered. References to "jus loci" and to "jus sanguinis" wall be discussed in the perspective of a different perception given territorial sovereignty.
A German attitude inherited from Herder and Fichte will be related to the British perception epitomized by Burke, and both will be discussed as reactions against the ideas of the French Revolution and of its subsequent transformations. The Durkheimian school and the work of Mauss will form the basis for an attempt to reassess, in a comparative fashion, the affective dimension implied in the involved social practices coupled with national identities and citizenship. This dimension is too often silenced by materialist and abstract theories. It is a dimension which anthropology can fruitfully use to apprehend the current tensions experienced in the post-colonial and post-Soviet empires.
Lectures & Readings
PART ONE: National configurations, national perceptions
Lecture 1: Modernity and national histories
- Alexis de Tocqueville (1858), extracts from : 'The old regime and the French Revolution'.
- Johan Gottlieb Fichte (1807) extracts from: Reden an die deutsche Nation. Discours a la Nation allemande, (7,9 et llem�s discours).
- Ernest Renan, Qu'est ce qu'une Nation ? (1882) - L'avenir de la science. (1890)
Lecture 2: Universalism and democracy
- Louis Dumont, German identity: Herder's Volk and Fichte's Nation. in: Essays on individualism. Modern ideology in anthropological perspective. (1986), pp.113 132
- Louis Dumont, Identit� collective et id�ologie universaliste leur ineraction de fait in: L'ideologie allemande (l991), pp.15 56. English version: Collective identity and universalist ideology German ideology (1994), pp.
- Ernest Gellner, "The betrayals of universals" in: Encounters with nationalism. (1993), pp.47 58
PART TWO: Society, State and Nation
Lecture 3: Territorial unity, cultural multiplicity
- Wolfgang Mommsen, Max Weber and German politics. (1973), Chicago, chap.3, pp.35 67.
- Otto Bauer, Die nationalit�tenfrage und die Sozialdemokratie (1907) introd. et extraits pp.ix xxviii, La question des nationalis�s et la socialdemocratie. pp.41 124, 195 234.
Lecture 4: Questionina the nature of minorities
- Joseph Staline, Le marxisme et la question des nationalis�s (1925), pp.11 84, 232 237. Marxismen og det nasjonale og koloniale sp�rsm�let (1913 1934), pp.13 66.
- Etienne Balibar in: I.Wallerstein & E.Balibar, Race, nation and class, ambiguous identities (1991), pp.95 117.
PART THREE: National identities and egalitarian values
Lecture 5: War and/or Revolution?
- Elie Halevy, The era of tyrannies. (1965)
- The world crisis of 1914 1918: an interpretation (1929), pp.209 247.
- The era of tyrannies (1936), pp.265 316
- Complementary discussion and a letter from Marcel Mauss (1938).
Lecture 6: The nation as achievement and experience
- Marcel Mauss, "La Nation" (circa.1920) in: Oeuvres compl�tes, vol. III. (1967), pp.573 639.
PART FOUR: From Nation to nationalism - New Nation States for old societies: the post colonial encounter
Lecture 7: Ultimate morals and civil ethics
- Jan Hesteerman, "Was there an Indian reaction?" in: H.L.Wesseling, ed. Essays on European expansion and reaction in Asia and Africa. (1978), pp.31 77.
- Clifford Geertz, The interpretation of culture ( 1973).
- chap.9: The fate of nationalism in the new States, pp.234 254.
- chap.l0: Primordial sentiments and civil politics in the new States, pp.255 311
- Jan Petter Blom, "Ethnic and cultural differenciation", in: F.Barth,ed. Ethnic groups and boundaries (1970), pp.74 85.
- Pierre Centlivres et Dominique Schnapper, Nation et droit de la nationalit� en Suisse.Pouvoirs 1991, pp.149 161.
Lecture 8: Reliqion and politics/The reliqion of politics
- Louis Dumont , "Nationalism and communalism" in: Homo hierarchicus, Chicago 1980 (1966), pp.314 334.
- David Apter, "Political religion in the new nations" in: C.Geertz,ed.Old societies and new states (1963), pp.57 104.
- Ernest Gellner,"The sacred and the national" in: Encounters with nationalism. (l993), chap.5, pp.59 73
- Robert Bellah, Civil religion in America in: Beyond belief. Essays on religion in a post traditional world (1972), pp.168 192.
PART FIVE: Sociality substituting society
Lecture 9: Rationalist and postmarxian perspectives
- Ernest Gellner, "Scale and Nation" in: F.Barth,ed. Scale and social organisation. (1978), pp.133 149.
- Ernest Gellner, "Social entropy and equality in industrial societies" in: Nations and nationalism (1983), pp. 63 87.
- Ernest Gellner, A typology of nationalisms id. pp.88 109.
- Eric Hobsbawm, Nations and Nationalism since 1780: program, myth and reality.(1990), chaps.5&6, pp.131 183
Lecture 10: The imagined and the imaginary in the name of ideology
- Benedict Anderson, Imagined communities. Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. (1991).
- chap.5: Old language new models. pp.67 82
- chap.6: Official nationalism and imperialism; pp.83 112.
- John Breuilly, Nationalism and the State.( 1993)
- chap.2: Sources and forms of nationalist ideologies. pp.54 72.
- appendix: Approaches to nationalism. pp.404 24.