Oslo Summer School for Social Sciences 2020

Gender in Academia and the Professions

Professor Mary Blair-Loy, University of California, San Diego 

Course dates: 29 June - 3 July 2020

Main disciplines: sociology, gender theory

Course Plan

This is a theoretically and empirically based lecture course on the social construction of gender within the labor markets of academia and other professions. We start out study with some foundational gender theory pieces. We then turn to a history of the gendered and racialized construction of scientific expertise. We examine the ways in which the understandings of scientific and scholarly excellence are shaped by culture. We study how inequalities are smuggled into the seemingly objective assessment of excellence. We investigate the meanings of motherhood, fatherhood, and work-family balance. We acknowledge that gender interacts with other social axes of inequality, including nationality, race/ethnicity, sexuality, and social class, yet our primary attention in this course is on gender. Our final day considers literature on sexual and gender harassment, including a new study on academia written by the National Academies of Sciences. Engineering and Medicine.

Course Objectives

Students will develop the following capacities:

  • a broad understanding of how gender is socially constructed
  • an understanding of the social structures of academia within the context of professional labor markets
  • an ability to critically read, assess, and write about the relevant scholarly literatures
  • practical knowledge about some of the challenges and promises of academic careers

This course is consistent with the research goals of NORDICORE, a Nordic Center of Excellence at the Institute for Social Research, Oslo. NORDICORE studies key issues that can help us understand and explain what promotes and inhibits gender balance and gender equality within academia and research.

 

Paper

The course paper should be 6,000-8,000 words and can take one of two formats: 

  1. A critical literature review of major course sections; or
  2. by agreement with Mary Blair-Loy, a research paper focusing on your own social science research agenda that also engages with several major course readings.  If choosing option 2, please send Mary Blair-Loy a paper copy of a 1/2-page Proposal, listing your topic, research questions, and course sources, at the beginning of class on Day 3. 

Teaching

Lecture 1 Course Introduction. Gender Theory: We assess foundational texts in gender theory, including considering how gender is performed in interaction and how gender is a structure.

Reading:

Risman, B. J. 2004. “Gender as a Social Structure: Theory Wrestling with Activism.” Gender & Society 148. pp. 429-439 

Acker, Jean. 1990. "Hierarchies, Jobs, and Bodies: A Theory of Gendered Organizations." Gender & Society 4: 139-58

West, C. & D.H. Zimmerman.1987. “Doing Gender.” Gender & Society 1:125-151.

R. W. Connell and James W. Messerschmidt. 2005. “Hegemonic Masculinity: Rethinking the Concept.” Gender & Society 19. pp.  829, 832-835, 846-848.

Schippers, Mimi. 2007. “Recovering the Feminine Other: Masculinity, Femininity, and Gender Hegemony.”  Theory and Society 35. Pp. 94-98.

 

Lecture 2 Historical and cultural roots of gendered and raced scientists.

 

Reading:

Julie Des Jardins. 2010. The Madame Curie Complex: The Hidden History of Women in Science. Feminist Press.  Introduction, Chapter 1.
 

Lecture 3 Nature v. Nurture: We read the speculation of Harvard U. president’s views on women’s inferiority in academia and science, and contrasting views

Reading: 

Summer, L. 2005. “Remarks at NBER Conference on Diversifying the Science and Engineering Workforce.” 

Hoffman, M., U. Gneezy, & J.A. List. 2011. “Nurture Affects Gender differences in Spatial Abilities.” Proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences (PNAS).

Fausto   Barres, B.A. 2006. “Does Gender Matter?” Nature 442: 133-136. 

 

Lecture 4 Implicit Bias in Academia

Reading: 

Corrice, A. 2009. “Unconscious Bias in Faculty and Leadership Recruitment: A Literature Review.” AAMC 9 (2). August.  https://www.aamc.org/download/102364/data/aibvol9no2.pdf

E. Reubena, P. Sapienzab, and L. Zingalesc. “How stereotypes impede women’s careers in science” (2014). PNAS, vol. 111, no. 12.

Leslie, Sarah-Jane, Meredith Meyer and Edward Freeland. 2015. “Expectations of brilliance underlie gender distributions across academic disciplines.” Science v. 347 (i. 6219), pp. 262-265. January 16, 2015.  http://science.sciencemag.org/content/347/6219/262

 

Lecture 5 Gendered work-family conflict in the professions

Reading: 

Blair-Loy, M. 2003. Competing Devotions: Career and Family among Women Executives. Harvard University Press.  Intro, Chap. 1, Chap. 2 and Conclusion.

Halrynjo, S. & S. T. Lyng. 2009, "Preferences, Constraints or Schemas of Devotion? Exploring Norwegian mothers’ withdrawals . . . " The British Journal of Sociology, 60: 321-343. 

Glavin, P., S. Schieman & S. Reid. 2011.  Boundary-Spanning Work Demands and Their Consequences for Guilt and Psychological Distress.  Journal of Health and Social Behavior March 2011 52: 43-57.

 

6. Gendered work-family conflict in sciences

Reading: 

E.A. Cech and M. Blair-Loy. 2019. “The changing career trajectories of new parents in STEM.” PNAS Mar. 5, 2019 116 (10) 4182-4187;

M. Blair-Loy and Erin A. Cech. 2017. “Demands and Devotion: Cultural Meanings of Work and Overload among Women Researchers and Professionals in Science and Technology Industries.” Sociological Forum 32(1): 5-27. 

 

7. Gendered work-family conflict in academia

Reading:

Mason, M.A., N.H. Wolfinger, and M. Goulden.  2013. Do Babies Matter? Gender and Family in the Ivory Tower.  Rutgers University Press. Chaps. 1, 2.

Cech E.A. and M. Blair-Loy. 2014. “Erin A. Cech and M. Blair-Loy. 2014. “Consequences of Flexibility Stigma among Academic Scientists and Engineers.” Work and Occupations 41: 86-110.

Chapters 1, 2 and 3 in Elaine Howard Ecklund and Anne E. Lincoln’s Failing Families, Failing Science: Work-Family Conflict in Academic Science.  NYU Press.

 

8. Chilly climates for under-represented groups in academia, based on cultural under-standings of masculine excellence.

 

J. Berdahl, et al.  2018.  “Work as a Masculinity Context.” Journal of Social Issues Vol 74, Issue 3, pp. 422-448.

E. Cech and T. Waidzunas. “Navigating the heteronormativity of engineering: the experiences of lesbian, gay, and bisexual students.” Engineering Studies, 3:1, 1-24, DOI: 10.1080/19378629.2010.545065

Bilimoria, Diana and Abigail J. Stewart. 2009. "'Don't Ask, Don't Tell': The Academic Climate for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Faculty in Science and Engineering." NWSA Journal 21: 2: 85-103.

Erin A. Cech, M. Blair-Loy, and Laura E. Rogers. 2017. “Recognizing Chilliness: How Schemas of Inequality Shape Views of Culture and Climate in Work Environments.” American Journal of Cultural Sociology 6(1):125-160. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1057/s41290-016-0019-1


9. We study sexual and gender harassment in academic science and consider better policy to protect scientists, students, and the public from harassment and its consequences.

Jennifer Berdahl. 2007. “The sexual harassment of uppity women.Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(2), 425-437

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.  2018. Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The National Academies Press. https://www.nap.edu/catalog/24994/sexual-harassment-of-women-climate-culture-and-consequences-in-academic  SELECTED PAGES TBA

10. International differences in women’s representation in science

Charles, Maria & Karen. Bradley. 2009. “Indulging our Gendered Selves? Sex Segregation by Field of Study in 44 Countries.” American Journal of Sociology 114:925-76.

Charles, Maria. 2011.  What Gender is Science?  Contexts 10 (2), pp. 22-28.  

 

Reading list

Risman, B. J. 2004. “Gender as a Social Structure: Theory Wrestling with Activism.” Gender & Society 148. Read pp. 429-439 


Acker, Jean. 1990. "Hierarchies, Jobs, and Bodies: A Theory of Gendered Organizations." Gender & Society 4: 139-58


West, C. & D.H. Zimmerman.1987. “Doing Gender.” Gender & Society 1:125-151.
R. W. Connell and James W. Messerschmidt. 2005. “Hegemonic Masculinity: Rethinking the Concept.” Gender & Society 19. Read pp. 829, 832-835, 846-848.


Schippers, Mimi. 2007. “Recovering the Feminine Other: Masculinity, Femininity, and Gender Hegemony.” Theory and Society 35. Read ppl. 94-98.


Julie Des Jardins. 2010. The Madame Curie Complex: The Hidden History of Women in Science. Feminist Press. Introduction, Chap 1.

Summer, L. 2005. “Remarks at NBER Conference on Diversifying the Science and Engineering Workforce.” .

Hoffman, M., U. Gneezy, & J.A. List. 2011. “Nurture Affects Gender differences in Spatial Abilities.” Proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences (PNAS).

Barres, B.A. 2006. “Does Gender Matter?” Nature 442: 133-136.

Corrice, A. 2009. “Unconscious Bias in Faculty and Leadership Recruitment: A Literature Review.” AAMC 9 (2). August. https://www.aamc.org/download/102364/data/aibvol9no2.pdf

E. Reubena, P. Sapienzab, and L. Zingalesc. “How stereotypes impede women’s careers in science” (2014). PNAS, vol. 111, no. 12.

Leslie, Sarah-Jane, Meredith Meyer and Edward Freeland. 2015. “Expectations of brilliance underlie gender distributions across academic disciplines.” Science v. 347 (i. 6219), pp. 262-265. January 16, 2015. http://science.sciencemag.org/content/347/6219/262.

Blair-Loy, M. 2003. Competing Devotions: Career and Family among Women Executives. Harvard University Press. Intro, Chap. 2, Conclusion.

Halrynjo, S. & S. T. Lyng. 2009, "Preferences, Constraints or Schemas of Devotion? Exploring Norwegian mothers’ withdrawals . . . " The British Journal of Sociology, 60: 321-343.

Glavin, P., S. Schieman & S. Reid. 2011. Boundary-Spanning Work Demands and Their Consequences for Guilt and Psychological Distress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior March 2011 52: 43-57.

E.A. Cech and M. Blair-Loy. 2019. “The changing career trajectories of new parents in STEM.” PNAS Mar. 5, 2019 116 (10) 4182-4187;

M. Blair-Loy and Erin A. Cech. 2017. “Demands and Devotion: Cultural Meanings of Work and Overload among Women Researchers and Professionals in Science and Technology Industries.” Sociological Forum 32(1): 5-27.

Mason, M.A., N.H. Wolfinger, and M. Goulden. 2013. Do Babies Matter? Gender and Family in the Ivory Tower. Rutgers University Press. Chaps. 1, 2.

Cech E.A. and M. Blair-Loy. 2014. “Erin A. Cech and M. Blair-Loy. 2014. “Consequences of Flexibility Stigma among Academic Scientists and Engineers.” Work and Occupations 41: 86-110.

Chapters 1 and 2 in Elaine Howard Ecklund and Anne E. Lincoln. Failing Families, Failing Science: Work-Family Conflict in Academic Science. NYU Press.
J. Berdahl, et al. 2018. “Work as a Masculinity Context.” Journal of Social Issues Vol 74, Issue 3, pp. 422-448.

E. Cech and T. Waidzunas. “Navigating the heteronormativity of engineering: the experiences of lesbian, gay, and bisexual students.” Engineering Studies, 3:1, 1-24, DOI: 10.1080/19378629.2010.545065

Bilimoria, Diana and Abigail J. Stewart. 2009. "'Don't Ask, Don't Tell': The Academic Climate for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Faculty in Science and Engineering." NWSA Journal 21: 2: 85-103.

Erin A. Cech, M. Blair-Loy, and Laura E. Rogers. 2017. “Recognizing Chilliness: How Schemas of Inequality Shape Views of Culture and Climate in Work Environments.” American Journal of Cultural Sociology 6(1):125-160. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1057/s41290-016-0019-1

Jennifer Berdahl. 2007. “The sexual harassment of uppity women.” Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(2), 425-437

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The National Academies Press. https://www.nap.edu/catalog/24994/sexual-harassment-of-women-climate-culture-and-consequences-in-academic SELECTED PAGES TBA

Charles, Maria & Karen. Bradley. 2009. “Indulging our Gendered Selves? Sex Segregation by Field of Study in 44 Countries.” American Journal of Sociology 114:925-76.

Charles, Maria. 2011. What Gender is Science? Contexts 10 (2), pp. 22-28.

Tags: Research Methods, Sociology, Methodology, Summer School, PhD, Political Science, Ethnography, Quantitative methods, Qualitative Methods
Published Feb. 27, 2020 10:00 AM - Last modified Mar. 3, 2020 11:55 AM