Oslo Summer School in Comparative Social Science Studies 2016

Comparative Policy Studies:
Theories, Methods, and Emerging Issues

Professor Gita Steiner-Khamsi
Teachers College
Columbia University
New York, USA

Main disciplines: Educational Science,
Sociology, Research Methodology

Dates: 25 - 29 July 2016
Course Credits: 10 ECTS
Limitation: 25 participants


Objectives
The seminar guides doctoral students in their endeavor to review, apply, and critically reflect on relevant theories and methods that lend themselves for understanding the policy process from an international comparative perspective. A special focus will be placed on the comparative study of global education policies, in particular, on the reception and translation of such “traveling reforms,” the role of international comparison for global norm setting, and the growing influence of multinational businesses and philanthropies in shaping educational reform.  Even though the examples deal mostly with education policies (and in a few cases health policies), some of the theories, methods and emerging issues, discussed in the seminar, may be useful for public policy studies in general. 

The seminar is divided into three parts:

Part 1 presents core concepts of three influential strands of social theory and shows how the same phenomenon may be interpreted differently, depending on which theoretical framework one has chosen. Three grand social theories (critical social theory, neo-institutionalism, system theory) and several interpretive frameworks for analyzing the policy process (Advocacy Coalition Framework, Garbage Can Model, Theory of the Post-Bureaucratic State) are presented in depth in order to explore the four most common frames used in policy studies: economic frame, political frame, rational frame, and social frame. 

Part 2 focuses on methods of comparative inquiry that are especially suited for comparative policy studies. The first methodology session focuses on indicator research and on cross-national comparison. The second session deals with studies that draw on relational data to identify types of policy actors (e.g., policy brokers, policy entrepreneurs, policy translators) and policy networks.

Part 3 highlights five new developments or emerging issues that are currently being heatedly debated in the policy research community: (i) the politics of transnational policy borrowing, (ii) governance by numbers and soft governance, (iii) the advance of non-state actors (businesses, philanthropy, non-governmental organizations, supranational organizations) as service providers, traders in commodities, and backstage advisors, (iv) the role of global agendas—most recently the 2030 SDGs (Sustainable Development Goals), and (v) the rise of new global actors and donors (notably China) in shaping education policy in developing countries. 

The syllabus includes a few texts produced by scholars based in Scandinavian countries. The participating doctoral students are encouraged to share additional relevant reading on the course website. There will be optional advisement sessions after the lectures for doctoral students that are interested in feedback on their policy-related dissertation research. 


Key books
Participants should obtain and read up on these books in advance of the course:

  • Ball, Stephen (2012). Global Education Inc.: New Policy Networks and the Neoliberal Imaginary (163 pages).
  • Nordin, Andreas and Sundberg, Daniel, eds (2014). Transnational Policy Flows in European Education. The making and governing of knowledge in the education policy field. Oxford: Symposium (book).
  • Sabatier, Paul A., ed. (2007). Theories of the Policy Process. Boulder: Westview (book).

Optional books

  • Landman, Todd (2008). Issues and Methods in Comparative Politics. An Introduction. New York: Routledge (book).
  • Verger, Antoni, Lubienski, Christopher and Steiner-Khamsi, Gita (2016). The Global Education Industry. New York: Routledge (book).


COURSE OUTLINE

Lecture 1: Theories I: Governmentality and the Role of the State
The seminar starts out with a reflection on the changing role of the State in agenda setting, policy formulation, and policy evaluation drawing on Foucault’s concepts of governmentality. In addition to reading key theory texts, the session discusses two examples: (i) “governance by numbers” (Ozga) and (ii) education as “pastoral care” (Popkewitz).

Readings:

  • Ball, Stephen J. (2012). Foucault, Power, and Education, chapter 2, pp. 119 – 153. London: Oxford: Routledge.
  • Foucault, Michel (1991). Governmentality. In G. Burchell, C. Gordon, and P. Miller, eds, The Foucault Effect: Studies in governmentality, pp. 87-104. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Foucault, Michel 1972). The Eye of Power. A conversation with Jean-Pierre Barou and Michelle Perrot. In Colin Gordon, ed., Power/Knowledge. Selected interviews and other writings, 1972-1977, pp. 146 - 165. New York: Pantheon.
  • Ozga, Jenny (2009). Governing education through data in England: from regulation to self-evaluation. Journal of Education Policy, 24 (2), 261-272.
  • Popkewitz, Thomas S. (1998). Struggling for the Soul. The politics of schooling and the construction of the teacher, chapter 2, pp. 34-57. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Strathern, Marilyn (2000). The Tyranny of Transparency. British Educational Research Journal, 26 (3), 309 – 321.


Lecture 2: Theories II: Neo-Institutionalism and the Role of Transnational Regimes
Arguably, neo-institutionalist theories lend themselves for a reflection on why national systems adopt international knowledge, beliefs and standards and what role international organizations play in propelling such international scripts.  The three examples discussed in this session relate to (i) the internationalization of management knowledge, (ii) the global spread of human rights education, and (iii) the Education for All and the Health for All international agreements. 

Readings:

  • Bromley, Patrica and Meyer, John W. (2016). Hyper-organization. Global organizational expansion, excerpt. London: Oxford University Press.
  • Chabbott, Colette (2015). Institutionalizing Health and Education for All, chapter 1, pp. 1-19. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Gudbjörg, Erlingsdóttir and Lindberg, Kajsa (2005). Isomorphism, Isopraxism, and Isonymism: Complementary or Competing Processes? In Barbara Czarniawka and Guje Sevón, eds, Global Ideas, Objects and Practices Travel in the Global Economy, chapter 5, pp. 71-93. Malmö: Liber and Copenhagen Business School Press.
  • Meyer, John W. (2002). Globalization and the Expansion of Standardization of Management, chapter 2. In Kerstin Sahlin-Andersson and Lars Engwall, eds, The Expansion of Management Knowledge: Carriers, flows, and sources, chapter 2. Stanford: University of California Press.
  • Sahlin-Andersson, Kerstin and Engwall, Lars: Carriers, Flows, and Sources of Management Knowledge. In Kerstin Sahlin-Andersson and Lars Engwall, eds, The Expansion of Management Knowledge: Carriers, flows, and sources, chapter 1. Stanford: University of California Press.
  • Suárez, David F. and Bromley, Patricia (2014). Institutional Theories and Levels of Analysis: History, Diffusion, and Translation. Draft May 2014.


Lecture 3: Theories III: System Theory and the Role of Externalization
There is an interesting debate in comparative education between authors writing within the interpretive framework of neo-institutionalism and those with an affinity to system theory. The main tenets of the controversy will be discussed. Key concepts of system theory, such as functional differentiation, exclusion/inclusion, and self-referentiality will be explored and subsequently applied to shed light on two issues: (i) public-private partnerships in education and (ii) the use of “scientific rationality” (Luhmann) in the policy process. 

Readings:

  • Demszky, Alma and Nassehi, Armin (2014). The Role of Knowledge in Scientific Policy Advice. Doing Knowledge. In Tara Fenwick, Eric Mangez and Jenny Ozga, eds, Governing Knowledge. Comparison, Knowledge-Based Technologies and Expertise in the Regulation of Education.
  • Luhmann, Niklas and Schorr, Klaus-Eberhard, Problems of Reflection in the System of Education. Münster: Waxmann (excerpt).
  • Luhmann, Niklas (1990). Essays on Self-Reference. New York: Columbia University Press (excerpt).
  • Schriewer, Jürgen and Martinez, Carlos (2004). Constructions of Internationality in Education. In Gita Steiner-Khamsi, ed., The Global Politics of educational borrowing and lending, chapter 2, pp. 29 – 53. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Sørensen, Eva and Torfing, Jacob (2009). The Politics of Self-Governance in Meso Level Theories. In Eva Sørensen and Peter Triantafillou, eds, The Politics of Self-Governance, chapter 3. London: Ashgate.


Lecture 4: Theories IV: Interpretive Frameworks for Understanding the Policy Process
The fourth and last theory session comprises a wide array of influential theories commonly referenced in public policy studies, notably the Advocacy Coalition Framework, the Garbage Can Model, and the Theory of the Post-bureaucratic State. In an attempt to explore under-studied aspects of the policy process, the lecturer presents her own classification of theoretical concepts taking into account transnational networks and global actors.

Readings:

  • Howlett, Michael and Ramesh, M. (2003). Agenda-Setting: Policy determinants, policy ideas, and policy windows. In Michael Howlett and M. Ramesh, Studying Public Policy. Policy Cycles and Policy Subsystems, chapter 5, pp. 120-142. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Maroy, Christian (2008). The New Regulation Forms of Educational Systems in Europe: Towards a Post-bureaucratic Regime. In N. C. Soguel and P. Jaccard, eds, Governance and Performance of Education Systems, 13 – 33. New York: Springer.
  • Sabatier, Paul A. (2007). Theories of the Policy Process. Boulder: Westview (337 pages; read selectively).


Lecture 5: Methods of Comparative Inquiry I: Analyzing Systems
The first method session provides an overview of comparative methods of inquiry drawing on Todd Landman’s textbook. Additionally, the texts read in this section explore how international rankings and cross-national comparison, as manifested in OECD- and IEA-type studies, are used as a new policy tool to generate or alleviate, respectively, reform pressure.

Readings:

  • Labaree, David F. (2014). Let’s measure What No One Teaches: PISA, NCLP, and the Shrinking Aims of Education. Teachers College Record, 116.
  • Landman, Todd (2008). Issues and Methods in Comparative Politics. An Introduction. New York: Routledge (book).
  • Lindahl, Joakim and Lundahl, Christian (2013). The (Mis-)Trust in Numbers: shape shifting and directions in the modern history of data in Swedish educational reform. In Martin Lawn, ed., The Rise of Data in Education Systems. Collection, Visualization and Use, pp. 57-78. Oxford: Symposium.
  • Meyer, Heinz-Dieter and Benavot, Aaron (2013). PISA, Power, and Policy: The emergence of global educational governance. Oxford: Symposium.
  • Steiner-Khamsi (2003). The Politics of League Tables. Journal of Social Science Education, 1 (on-line journal SOWI).


Lecture 6: Methods of Comparative Inquiry II: Analyzing Actors, Relations & Networks
The second methods section discusses the use of social network analysis for understanding the relation between policy actors, in particular, policy brokers, policy entrepreneurs, and policy translators. 

Readings:

  • Ball, Stephen (2012). Global Education Inc.: New Policy Networks and the Neoliberal Imaginary (book, 163 pages).
  • Carolan, Brian (2008). Institutional Pressures and Isomorphic Change. The Case of New York City’s Department of Education. Education and Urban Society, 40 (4), 428-451.
  • Carolan, Brian V. and Natriello, Gary (2005). Data-Mining Journals and Books: Using the Science of Networks to Uncover the Structure of the Educational Research Community. Educational Researcher, 25-33.
  • Lawn, Martin (2008). Introduction. In An Atlantic Crossing? The Work of the International Examinations Inquiry, its Researchers, Methods and Influence, pp. 7-37.  Oxford: Symposium.
  • Schulte, Barbara (2012). Webs of Borrowing and Lending: Social networks in vocational education in Republican China. In Gita Steiner-Khamsi and Florian Waldow, eds, Policy Borrowing and Lending in Education. World Yearbook of Education 2012, chapter 6. New York: Routledge.


Lecture 7: Issues I:  Globalization and Education Policy: Part 1 
The third part of the seminar (sessions 7 – 10) addresses current issues in policy studies from an international comparative perspective. Session 7 starts out with introducing current debates, trends and empirical studies in policy borrowing research carried out in different regions, including in Scandinavian countries. A fascinating new trend is to compare the varied receptions of PISA league leaders, such as Finland, and explore the country-specific explanations or rather “projections” (Waldow, Takayama, Sung) into Finnish success.

Two of the questions that will guide this particular session are the following: (1) What do these country-specific projections into Finnish success tell us about controversial policy issues in the recipient country? (2) Under which circumstances and to what extend do references to PISA have a salutary effect on coalition building in the local context?

Readings:

  • Brøgger, Katja (2014). The Ghosts of Higher Education Reform. On the Organizational processes surrounding policy borrowing. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 12(4), 520-541.
  • Czarniawska, Barbara and Sevón, Guje (2005). Translation Is a Vehicle, Imitation its Motor, and Fashion Sits at the Wheel. In Barbara Czarniawska and Guje Sevón, eds, Global Ideas. How Ideas, Objects and Practices Travel in the Global Economy, pp. 7 – 12. Malmö : Liber and Copenhagen Business School Press.
  • Nordin, Andreas and Sundberg, Daniel, eds (2014). Transnational Policy Flows in European Education. The making and governing of knowledge in the education policy field. Oxford: Symposium (240 pages).
  • Steiner-Khamsi, Gita (2012). Understanding Policy Borrowing and Lending. Building Comparative Policy Studies. In G. Steiner-Khamsi & F. Waldow, eds., Policy Borrowing and Lending. World Yearbook of Education 2012. London and New York, pp. 3-17.
  • Takayama, Keita (2010)  ‘Politics of externalization in reflexive times: Reinventing Japanese education reform discourses through "Finnish success"’, Comparative Education Review, 54(1): 51-75.
  • Waldow, Florian, Takayama, Keita and Sung, Youl-Kwan (2014). Rethinking the pattern of external policy referencing: media discourses over the ‘Asian Tigers’’ PISA success in Australia, Germany and South Korea. Comparative Education, 50 (3), 302-321.


Lecture 8: Issues II: Globalization and Education Policy: Part 2
The discussion of global education policy continues into session 8. In this session, we read a wide range of studies, ranging from authors that explore the phenomenon from an anthropological perspective to others who use a political economy framework to explain the impact of globalization on education policy. 

Readings:

  • Anderson-Levitt, Katherine (2012). Complicating the concept of culture. Comparative Education, 48 (4), 441-454.
  • Mundy, Karen, Green, Andy, Lingard, Bob and Verger, Antoni, eds, Handbook of Global Education Policy. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley; excerpts.
  • Steiner-Khamsi, Gita (2012). The global/local nexus in comparative policy studies: analysing the triple bonus system in Mongolia over time. Comparative Education, 48 (4), 455-471.


Lecture 9: Issues III: Businesses and Philanthropy 
Arguably, marketization, privatization, and commodification are by no means new phenomena, but they nowadays respond to, and create, new realities resulting in new structures, practices and beliefs. The seminar attempts to explore how the current wave of commercialization is fundamentally different from earlier waves of private sector involvement in education.

In pursuing this research question, we will explore a few topics that emerged in the 2016 title of the World Yearbook of Education entitled The Global Education Industry (published by Routledge) such as, for example, (1) the global reach of the education industry and its explosive growth over the past few years for all kinds of educational services and products  (provision of schooling, consultancies, textbook development, testing, etc.). (2) the impact of the global education industry on how education is conceptualized, governed, and funded including, for example, the new division of roles between the State and the Market, and (3) the emergence of new markets for the education industry such as, for example, low fee private schools in developing countries.

Readings:

  • Hess, Frederick M. and Henig, Jeffrey R. (2015). The New Education Philanthropy: Politics, Policy, and Reform, 1 chapter. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Ridge, Natasha, Kippels, Susan and Shami, Soha (2016). Economy, Business, and First Class: The Implications of For-Profit Education Provision in the UAE. In Antoni Verger, Christopher Lubienski and Gita Steiner-Khamsi, eds, The Global Education Industry. World Yearbook of Education 2016, chapter 16. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Robertson, Susan L. and Verger, Antoni (2012). Governing education through public private partnership. In S. L. Robertson, K. Mundy, A. Verger and F. Menashy, eds, Public Private Partnership in Education. New Actors and Modes of Governance in a Globalizing World, pp. 21-42. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
  • Srivasteva, Prachi (2016). Questioning the Global Scaling-up of Low-fee Private Schooling: The Nexus between Business, Philanthropy and PPPs. In Antoni Verger, Christopher Lubienski and Gita Steiner-Khamsi, eds, The Global Education Industry. World Yearbook of Education 2016, chapter 15. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Verger, Antoni, Lubienski, Christopher and Steiner-Khamsi, Gita (2016). The Emergence and Structuring of the Global Educaiton Industry: Towards an Analytical Framework. In Antoni Verger, Christopher Lubienski and Gita Steiner-Khamsi, eds, The Global Education Industry. World Yearbook of Education 2016, chapter 1. London and New York: Routledge.


Lecture 10: Issues IV: The 2030 Sustainable Development Goals and New Donors; Wrap-Up
The last session investigates the international cooperation models of new global state actors, notably PR China but also other BRIC countries, and reflects on trends in operationalizing the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals. The last section will also be used for a summary and a retrospective of the ten lectures. 

Readings:

  • Bräutigam, Deborah (2011). “Aid ‘with Chinese Characteristics’”: Chinese Foreign Aid and Development Finance Meet the OECD-DAC Aid Regime.” Journal of International Development, 23 (5), 752-764.
  • Samoff, Joel (2012). “Research Shows That …”: Creating the Knowledge Environment for Learning for All. In Steven J. Klees, Joel Samoff, Nelly P. Stromquist, eds, The World Bank and Education. Critiques and Alternatives, pp. 143 – 158.  Rotterdam: Sense.
  • Steiner-Khamsi, Gita (2012). For All by All? The World Bank’s Global Framework for Education. In Steven J. Klees, Joel Samoff, Nelly P. Stromquist, eds, The World Bank and Education. Critiques and Alternatives, pp. 3-20.  Rotterdam: Sense.
  • Blogs that discuss indicators for measuring SDG targets (to be determined).


Complete reading list

  • Andersen, Niels Å. (2000). Public Market – Political Firms. Acta Sociologica, 43, 43 – 61.
  • Anderson-Levitt, Katherine (2012). Complicating the concept of culture. Comparative Education, 48 (4), 441-454.
  • Ball, Stephen J. Ball (2012). Foucault, Power, and Education, chapter 2, pp. 119 – 153. London: Oxford: Routledge.
  • Ball, Stephen (2012). Global Education Inc.: New Policy Networks and the Neoliberal Imaginary (163 pages).
  • Bräutigam, Deborah (2011). “Aid ‘with Chinese Characteristics’”: Chinese Foreign Aid and Development Finance Meet the OECD-DAC Aid Regime.” Journal of International Development, 23 (5), 752-764.
  • Brøgger, Katja (2014). The Ghosts of Higher Education Reform. On the Organizational processes surrounding policy borrowing. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 12(4), 520-541.
  • Bromley, Patrica and Meyer, John W. (2016). Hyper-organization. Global organizational expansion, excerpt. London: Oxford University Press.
  • Carolan, Brian (2008). Institutional Pressures and Isomorphic Change. The Case of New York City’s Department of Education. Education and Urban Society, 40 (4), 428-451.
  • Carolan, Brian V. and Natriello, Gary (2005). Data-Mining Journals and Books: Using the Science of Networks to Uncover the Structure of the Educational Research Community. Educational Researcher, 25-33.
  • Chabbott, Colette (2015). Institutionalizing Health and Education for All, chapter 1, pp. 1-19. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Czarniawska, Barbara and Sevón, Guje (2005). Translation Is a Vehicle, Imitation its Motor, and Fashion Sits at the Wheel. In Barbara Czarniawska and Guje Sevón, eds, Global Ideas. How Ideas, Objects and Practices Travel in the Global Economy, pp. 7 – 12. Malmö : Liber and Copenhagen Business School Press.
  • Demszky, Alma and Nassehi, Armin (2014). The Role of Knowledge in Scientific Policy Advice. Doing Knowledge. In Tara Fenwick, Eric Mangez and Jenny Ozga, eds, Governing Knowledge. Comparison, Knowledge-Based Technologies and Expertise in the Regulation of Education.
  • Gudbjörg, Erlingsdóttir and Lindberg, Kajsa (2005). Isomorphism, Isopraxism, and Isonymism: Complementary or Competing Processes? In Barbara Czarniawka and Guje Sevón, eds, Global Ideas, Objects and Practices Travel in the Global Economy, chapter 5, pp. 71-93. Malmö: Liber and Copenhagen Business School Press.
  • Foucault, Michel (1991). Governmentality. In G. Burchell, C. Gordon, and P. Miller, eds, The Foucault Effect: Studies in governmentality, pp. 87-104. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Foucault, Michel 1972). The Eye of Power. A conversation with Jean-Pierre Barou and Michelle Perrot. In Colin Gordon, ed., Power/Knowledge. Selected interviews and other writings, 1972-1977, pp. 146 - 165. New York: Pantheon.
  • Hess, Frederick M. and Henig, Jeffrey R. (2015). The New Education Philanthropy: Politics, Policy, and Reform. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, excerpt.
  • Howlett, Michael and Ramesh, M. (2003). Agenda-Setting: Policy determinants, policy ideas, and policy windows. In Michael Howlett and M. Ramesh, Studying Public Policy. Policy Cycles and Policy Subsystems, chapter 5, pp. 120-142. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Labaree, David F. (2014). Let’s measure What No One Teaches: PISA, NCLP, and the Shrinking Aims of Education. Teachers College Record, 116.
  • Landman, Todd (2008). Issues and Methods in Comparative Politics. An Introduction. New York: Routledge (book).
  • Lawn, Martin (2008). Introduction. In An Atlantic Crossing? The Work of the International Examinations Inquiry, its Researchers, Methods and Influence, pp. 7-37.  Oxford: Symposium.
  • Lindahl, Joakim and Lundahl, Christian (2013). The (Mis-)Trust in Numbers: shape shifting and directions in the modern history of data in Swedish educational reform. In Martin Lawn, ed., The Rise of Data in Education Systems. Collection, Visualization and Use, pp. 57-78. Oxford: Symposium.
  • Luhmann, Niklas and Schorr, Klaus-Eberhard, Problems of Reflection in the System of Education. Münster: Waxmann (excerpt).
  • Luhmann, Niklas (1990). Essays on Self-Reference. New York: Columbia University Press (excerpt).
  • Maroy, Christian (2008). The New Regulation Forms of Educational Systems in Europe: Towards a Post-bureaucratic Regime. In N. C. Soguel and P. Jaccard, eds, Governance and Performance of Education Systems, 13 – 33. New York: Springer.
  • Meyer, Heinz-Dieter and Benavot, Aaron (2013). PISA, Power, and Policy: The emergence of global educational governance. Oxford: Symposium.
  • Meyer, John W. (2002). Globalization and the Expansion of Standardization of Management, chapter 2. In Kerstin Sahlin-Andersson and Lars Engwall, eds, The Expansion of Management Knowledge: Carriers, flows, and sources, chapter 2. Stanford: University of California Press.
  • Mundy, Karen, Green, Andy, Lingard, Bob and Verger, Antoni, eds, Handbook of Global Education Policy. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley; excerpts.
  • Nordin, Andreas and Sundberg, Daniel, eds (2014). Transnational Policy Flows in European Education. The making and governing of knowledge in the education policy field. Oxford: Symposium (240 pages).
  • Ozga, Jenny (2009). Governing education through data in England: from regulation to self-evaluation. Journal of Education Policy, 24 (2), 261-272.
  • Popkewitz, Thomas S. (1998). Struggling for the Soul. The politics of schooling and the construction of the teacher, chapter 2, pp. 34-57. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Ridge, Natasha, Kippels, Susan and Shami, Soha (2016). Economy, Business, and First Class: The Implications of For-Profit Education Provision in the UAE. In Antoni Verger, Christopher Lubienski and Gita Steiner-Khamsi, eds, The Global Education Industry. World Yearbook of Education 2016, chapter 16. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Robertson, Susan L. and Verger, Antoni (2012). Governing education through public private partnership. In S. L. Robertson, K. Mundy, A. Verger and F. Menashy, eds, Public Private Partnership in Education. New Actors and Modes of Governance in a Globalizing World, pp. 21-42. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
  • Sabatier, Paul A. (2007). Theories of the Policy Process. Boulder: Westview (337 pages; read selectively).
  • Sahlin-Andersson, Kerstin and Engwall, Lars: Carriers, Flows, and Sources of Management Knowledge. In Kerstin Sahlin-Andersson and Lars Engwall, eds, The Expansion of Management Knowledge: Carriers, flows, and sources, chapter 1. Stanford: University of California Press.
  • Samoff, Joel (2012). “Research Shows That …”: Creating the Knowledge Environment for Learning for All. In Steven J. Klees, Joel Samoff, Nelly P. Stromquist, eds, The World Bank and Education. Critiques and Alternatives, pp. 143 – 158.  Rotterdam: Sense.
  • Schriewer, Jürgen and Martinez, Carlos (2004). Constructions of Internationality in Education. In Gita Steiner-Khamsi, ed., The Global Politics of educational borrowing and lending, chapter 2, pp. 29 – 53. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Schulte, Barbara (2012). Webs of Borrowing and Lending: Social networks in vocational education in Republican China. In Gita Steiner-Khamsi and Florian Waldow, eds, Policy Borrowing and Lending in Education. World Yearbook of Education 2012, chapter 6. New York: Routledge.
  • Sørensen, Eva and Torfing, Jacob (2009). The Politics of Self-Governance in Meso Level Theories. In Eva Sørensen and Peter Triantafillou, eds, The Politics of Self-Governance, chapter 3. London: Ashgate.
  • Srivasteva, Prachi (2016). Questioning the Global Scaling-up of Low-fee Private Schooling: The Nexus between Business, Philanthropy and PPPs. In Antoni Verger, Christopher Lubienski and Gita Steiner-Khamsi, eds, The Global Education Industry. World Yearbook of Education 2016, chapter 15. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Steiner-Khamsi (2003). The Politics of League Tables. Journal of Social Science Education, 1 (on-line journal SOWI).
  • Steiner-Khamsi, Gita (2012). Understanding Policy Borrowing and Lending. Building Comparative Policy Studies. In G. Steiner-Khamsi & F. Waldow, eds., Policy Borrowing and Lending. World Yearbook of Education 2012. London and New York, pp. 3-17.
  • Steiner-Khamsi, Gita (2012). The global/local nexus in comparative policy studies: analysing the triple bonus system in Mongolia over time. Comparative Education, 48 (4), 455-471.
  • Steiner-Khamsi, Gita (2012). For All by All? The World Bank’s Global Framework for Education. In Steven J. Klees, Joel Samoff, Nelly P. Stromquist, eds, The World Bank and Education. Critiques and Alternatives, pp. 3-20.  Rotterdam: Sense.
  • Strathern, Marilyn (2000). The Tyranny of Transparency. British Educational Research Journal, 26 (3), 309 – 321.
  • Suárez, David F. and Bromley, Patricia (2014). Institutional Theories and Levels of Analysis: History, Diffusion, and Translation. Draft May 2014.
  • Takayama, Keita (2010)  ‘Politics of externalization in reflexive times: Reinventing Japanese education reform discourses through "Finnish success"’, Comparative Education Review, 54(1): 51-75.
  • Verger, Antoni, Lubienski, Christopher and Steiner-Khamsi, Gita (2016). The Emergence and Structuring of the Global Educaiton Industry: Towards an Analytical Framework. In Antoni Verger, Christopher Lubienski and Gita Steiner-Khamsi, eds, The Global Education Industry. World Yearbook of Education 2016, chapter 1. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Waldow, Florian, Takayama, Keita and Sung, Youl-Kwan (2014). Rethinking the pattern of external policy referencing: media discourses over the ‘Asian Tigers’’ PISA success in Australia, Germany and South Korea. Comparative Education, 50 (3), 302-321.


The lecturer
Gita Steiner-Kahmsi is Professor of Comparative and International Education at Teachers College, Columbia University in New York. Prior to her appointment at Columbia University (1995), she worked for close to ten years as policy analyst in the Ministry of Education, Canton of Zurich, Switzerland. She published eight books, numerous journal articles and book chapters on areas related to comparative policy studies, globalization, comparative methods, and international educational development.

She has analyzed school reforms and teacher policies in North America, Europe as well as in Mongolia and in Central Asia. She is series editor of two book series in comparative education, one with Routledge (World Yearbook of Education) and another with Teachers College Press (International Perspectives on Educational Reform), and is a former president of the Comparative and International Education Society (2016). 

Her most recent book is entitled The Global Education Industry, co-edited with Antoni Verger and Christopher Lubienski, published by Routledge in 2016. 

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Published Nov. 18, 2015 9:59 AM - Last modified Aug. 15, 2016 10:09 AM