Oslo Summer School in Comparative Social Science Studies 2016

Citizenship and Immigration in Europe

Professor, Dr. Christian Joppke
Institute of Sociology
Department of Social Sciences
University of Bern, Switzerland

Main disciplines: Sociology,
Political Science

Dates: 25 - 29 July 2016
Course Credits: 10 ECTS
Limitation: 25 participants

Should terrorists be deprived of their French citizenship? Should Malta be allowed to sell its citizenship to foreign investors? Should social benefits be limited to British nationals, and be withheld from other EU citizens? These are some of the ways in which citizenship has recently made headlines in Europe. While these questions speak to different issues, from security to growth and welfare, they all firmly locate citizenship in a context of immigration. Indeed, citizenship law is the main mechanism by which national societies control their boundaries and decide “who” they want to be. If, today, we live in “diverse” or “multicultural” societies, the major reason is that immigration and citizenship laws have allowed them to become so.

Interestingly, when “citizenship” entered the sociological lexicon, it was entirely unconnected to migration. In liberal postwar sociology, “citizenship” was the answer to the Marxist scenario of polarizing class conflict, which was losing credibility in the context of mounting affluence and social rights. But contemporary migration has shattered the optimistic scenario of citizenship as equality-spender. Citizenship now appeared in a different, less liberal light, as mechanism of closure that sharply demarcates the world’s nation-states from one another. In this more hard-nosed optic, citizenship blocks inter-state mobility and allows states to exist as relatively closed, self-reproducing units.

This course reviews the new academic field of “citizenship and immigration”, with a focus on Europe. It brings to light some important changes that citizenship in Europe has undergone in the course of contemporary migration, and which have not always been adequately grasped. This migration occurs in a distinct historical context, marked by the rise of universal human rights norms. They made citizenship more porous and less discriminatory, but also less nationally distinct than in the past. It is a truism that in the era of globalization national societies are much less the sharply bounded, autarchic units that they used to be. Citizenship has been centrally involved in this transformation, both as dependent and as independent variable.

Essential readings for course preparation

  • Christian Joppke, Citizenship and Immigration. Cambridge 2010
  • Marc Morjé Howard, The Politics of Citizenship in Europe. Cambridge 2009.


Lecture 1: The Concept of Citizenship: Its Dimensions and Historical Development


  • Rogers Brubaker, Citizenship and Nationhood in Germany and France. Cambridge, Mass. 1992, chapter 1
  • Marc Morjé Howard, The Politics of Citizenship in Europe, 1-17
  • Gianfranco Poggi, chapter on citizenship, in: Poggi, Varieties of Political Experience. ECPR Press 2014
  • C.Joppke, Citizenship and Immigration, chapter 1.

Lecture 2: Resilience or Decline of Citizenship? The Brubaker and Soysal Theses, and their Critics


  • Rogers Brubaker, “Immigration, citizenship, and the nation-state in France and Germany”, International Sociology 5(4), 1990, 379-407
  • C.Joppke, “Toward a New Sociology of the State”, European Journal of Sociology (1995)
  • Yasemin Soysal, Limits of Citizenship. Chicago 1994, chapter 8
  • Randall Hansen, “The Poverty of Postnationalism”, Theory and Society 38(1), 2009: 1-24.

Lecture 3: Immigrants into Citizens: The Liberalization of Access to Citizenship


  • Marc Morjé Howard, The Politics of Citizenship in Europe, 17-69;
  • C.Joppke, Citizenship and Immigration, chapter 2.

Lecture 4: The Rights of Citizens and of Immigrants


  • V.Guiraudon, “Citizenship Rights for Non-Immigrants”, in: C.Joppke, ed. Challenge to the Nation-State. Oxford 1998
  • C.Joppke, Citizenship and Immigration, ch.3.

Lecture 5: Multicultural Citizenship? The Kymlicka Thesis, and the Debate over the “Retreat” of Multiculturalism


  • Will Kymlicka. 1995. Multicultural Citizenship. Oxford 1995, 10-33, 75-115, 124-6, 187-9
  • C.Joppke, Is Multiculturalism Dead? Crisis and Persistence in the Constitutional State, Cambridge 2017, ch.2.

Lecture 6: The Identity of Citizenship: Unity and Integration in Liberal Immigrant Societies


  • C.Joppke, Citizenship and Immigration, chapter 4
  • Liav Orgad, The Cultural Defense of Nations. Oxford 2015, ch.3.


Lecture 7: The Future of Citizenship: “Lightening” or “Fortification”? Contrasting Western and Gulf State Citizenship


  • C.Joppke, “The Inevitable Lightening of Citizenship”, European Journal of Sociology 2010
  • Sara Wallace Goodman, “Fortifying Citizenship”, World Politics 64(4), 2012, 659-698
  • Anh Nga Longva, “Citizenship in the Gulf States”, in Nils A. Butenschon et al., eds. Citizenship and the State in the Middle East. Syracuse 2000.

Lecture 8: The Enigma of European Union Citizenship: A “Roman” Citizenship of Rights without Duties


  • Joseph Weiler, “To be a European Citizen”, in J.Weiler, A Constitution for Europe. Cambridge 1999
  • Gareth Davies, “Any Place I Hang my Hat?” European Law Journal 11(1), 2005, 43-56
  • Dimitri Kochenov, “EU Citizenship Without Duties”, European Law Journal 20(4), 2014, 482-98.

Lecture 9: Current Debates (I): Should Citizenship be for Sale?


  • Ayelet Shachar and Ran Hirschl, “On Citizenship, States, and Markets”, Journal of Political Philosophy 22(2), 231-57, 2014
  • Javier Hidalgo, “Selling Citizenship: A Defense”, Journal of Applied Philosophy 1-17, 2014 (electronic advance publication)
  • C.Joppke, “Instrumental Citizenship: A Normative-cum-Empirical Inquiry” 2016 (unpublished ms).

Lecture 10: Current Debates (II): Should Terrorists be deprived of their Citizenship?


  • Shai Lavi, “Revocation of Citizenship as Punishment”, University of Toronto Law Journal 61(4), 2011, 783-810
  • Audrey Macklin, kick-off contribution, in A.Macklin and R.Bauböck, “The Return of Banishment”, EUI Working Papers 2014
  • C.Joppke, “Terror and the Loss of Citizenship”, Citizenship Studies (2016, forthcoming).

The lecturer
Christian Joppke is Professor of Sociology at the University of Bern, Switzerland. His fields of expertise include religion and politics (especially Islam in the West), comparative immigration policy, as well as citizenship and multiculturalism.

Tags: Sociology, Multiculturalism, Immigration, Citizenship, Summer School, PhD, Europe
Published Apr. 18, 2016 9:28 AM - Last modified Aug. 15, 2016 10:05 AM