Oslo Summer School in Comparative Social Science Studies 2014

Comparative Welfare States

Lecturer: Professor John R. Bowman,
Department of Political Science,
City University of New York, USA

Main disciplines: Sociology, Political Science, Political Economy

Dates: 28 July - 1 August 2014
Course Credits: 10 pts (ECTS)
Limitation: 30 participants


Objectives
This course focuses on welfare states in advanced industrial democracies, with a particular emphasis on Western Europe and the United States.  The course will begin by examining the various ways in which the welfare state has been conceptualized in the social science literature.  In the next part of the course, we will examine the political dynamics of welfare states, studying the various approaches to explaining welfare state growth, variation, resilience, and decline.  Part of this examination will involve a close look at the changing economic and social environment of social policy, including economic globalization, European integration, and increased immigration. We will then compare social policies across the three main categories of welfare states, with an empirical focus on Germany, Sweden, and the United States. This means examining the main features of specific policies as well as the politics of recent policy change. The final section of the course will focus on the impact of welfare states on the distribution of income and the operation of labor markets.


Required core readings
Participants must obtain and read these books in advance

  • Bowman, John R. Capitalisms Compared: Welfare, Work, and Business. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage/CQ Press, 2014, especially Chapters 1-5.
  • Esping-Andersen, Gøsta. Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990, especially Chapters 1-3.
  • Huber, Evelyne, and John D. Stephens. Development and Crisis of the Welfare State. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001, especially Chapters 1-2.
  • Kersbergen, Kees van, and Barbara Vis. Comparative Welfare State Politics: Development, Opportunities, and Reform. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014.
  • Pontusson, Jonas. Inequality and Prosperity: Social Europe Versus Liberal America. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2005.



COURSE OUTLINE

Lecture 1:  Conceptualizing the Contemporary Welfare State.
Comparative welfare state scholarship has been dominated by Esping-Andersen’s conception of “three worlds of welfare.” In this lecture we will critically examine Esping-Andersen’s approach, including antecedents, critiques, elaborations, and extensions.

Required Reading:

  • Esping-Andersen, Gøsta. Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990,  Chapters 1-3.
  • Kersbergen, Kees van, and Barbara Vis. Comparative Welfare State Politics: Development, Opportunities, and Reform. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014, Chapter 4.
  • Orloff, Ann Shola. “Gender and the Social Rights of Citizenship: The Comparative Analysis of Gender Relations and Welfare States.” American Sociological Review 58, no. June (1993): 303-28.
  • Hacker, Jacob S. The Divided Welfare State: The Battle Over Public and Private Social Benefits in the United States. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002, pp. 5-27.

 

Supplemental Reading:

  • Arts, Wilhelmus Antonius, and John Gelissen. “Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism or More? A State-of-the-Art Report.” Journal of European Social Policy 12, no. 2 (2002): 137-59.
  • Scruggs, Lyle A., and James P. Allan. “Social Stratification and Welfare Regimes for the Twenty-First Century: Revisiting the Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism.” World Politics 60, no. 4 (2008): 642-64.


Lecture 2: Explaining Welfare State Growth and Variation: Class Interests, Class Struggle, and Cross-Class Coalitions. 
This session will present a critical evaluation of those explanations of welfare state dynamics that focus on the interaction of labor and employer interests.

Required Reading:

  • Huber, Evelyne, and John D. Stephens. Development and Crisis of the Welfare State. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001, Chapters 1-2.
  • Kersbergen, Kees van, and Barbara Vis. Comparative Welfare State Politics: Development, Opportunities, and Reform. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014, Chapter 3.
  • Baldwin, Peter. The Politics of Social Solidarity: Class Bases of the European Welfare State, 1875-1975. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990, pp. 1-57.
  • Mares, Isabela. “The Sources of Business Interests in Social Insurance: Sectoral Versus National Differences.” World Politics 55, no. 2 (January 2003): 229-58.
  • Swenson, Peter. “Varieties of Capitalist Interests: Power, Institutions, and the Regulatory Welfare State in the United States and Sweden.” Studies in American Political Development 18 (Spring 2004): 1-29.

 

Supplementary Reading:

  • Iversen, Torben. Capitalism, Democracy, and Welfare. Cambridge, UK ; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005, Chapter 1.
  • Korpi, Walter. “Power Resources and Employer-Centered Explanations of Welfare States and Varieties of Capitalism: Protagonists, Dissenters, and Consenters.” World Politics 58, no. 2 (January 2006): 167-206


Lecture 3. Explaining Welfare State Growth and Variation: Institutions and Ideas. 
In this lecture we will examine the way in which class interests have been mediated by political and electoral institutions. We will also investigate the role of ideas in shaping the development of welfare states.

Required Reading:

  • Ellen Immergut, “The Rules of the Game: the Logic of Health Policy Making in France, Switzerland, and Sweden.” In Structuring Politics, edited by Sven Steinmo, Kathleen Thelen, and Frank Longstreth. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992, pp. 57-89.
  • Iversen, Torben, and David Soskice. “Distribution and Redistribution: The Shadow of the Nineteenth Century.” World Politics 61, no. 3 (July 2006): 438-86.
  • Kersbergen, Kees van, and Barbara Vis. Comparative Welfare State Politics: Development, Opportunities, and Reform. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014, Chapter 6.
  • Kersbergen, Kees van, and Philip Manow. “Religion and the Welfare State: The Theoretical Context.” In Religion, Class Coalitions, and Welfare States, eds Kees van Kersbergen and Philip Manow, 1-38.

 

Supplemental Reading:

  • Orloff, Ann Shola, and Theda Skocpol. “Why not Equal Protection? Explaining the Politics of Public Social Spending in Britain, 1900-1911, and the United States, 1890s- 1920.” American Sociological Review 49, no. 6 (December 1984): 726-50.
  • Martin, Cathie Jo, and Duane Swank. “The Political Origins of Coordinated Capitalism: Business Organizations, Party Systems, and State Structure in the Age of Innocence.” American Political Science Review 102, no. 2 (May 2008): 181-98
  • Mehta, Jal. “The Varied Role of Ideas in Politics.” In Ideas and Politics in Social Science Research, edited Daniel Béland, Daniel and Robert Henry Cox. Oxford University Press, 2011, 23-46.


Lecture 4: A Changing Welfare State Environment?
This session will focus on the constraints and opportunities presented by economic globalization, transformations in domestic demographic and economic structures, increased immigration and multiculturalism, and the expansion of interstate structures like the European Union.

Required Reading:

  • Kersbergen, Kees van, and Barbara Vis. Comparative Welfare State Politics: Development, Opportunities, and Reform. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014, Chapters 7-8.
  • Pierson, Paul. “Post-Industrial Pressures on the Mature Welfare States.” In The New Politics of the Welfare State, edited by Paul Pierson, 80-104. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.
  • Brady, David, Jason Beckfield, and Martin Seeleib-Kaiser. “Economic Globalization and the Welfare State in Affluent Democracies, 1975-2001.” American Sociological Review 70, no. 6 (December 2005): 921-48.
  • Banting, Keith, and Will Kymlicka. “Introduction: Multiculturalism and the Welfare State: Setting the Context.” In Multiculturalism and the Welfare State: Recognition and Redistribution in Contemporary Democracies, edited by Keith Branting and Will Kymlicka, 1-48. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

 

Supplemental Reading:

  • Garrett, Geoffrey. “Global Markets and National Politics: Collision Course or Virtuous Circle?” International Organization 52, no. 4 (Winter 1998): 787-824.
  • Swank, Duane. Global Capital, Political Institutions, and Policy Change in Developed Welfare States. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002, Chapters 1 and 2.
  • Iversen, Torben, and Thomas R. Cusack. “The Causes of Welfare State Expansion: Deindustrialization or Globalization?” World Politics 52, no. 3 (April 2000): 313-49
  • Bonoli, Giuliano. “The Politics of the New Social Policies: Providing Coverage Against New Social Risks in Mature Welfare States.” Policy and Politics 33, no. 3 (0431-49 2005).


Lecture 5: Mapping the Trajectory of the Welfare State: Retrenchment, Resilience, or Reconstruction? 
In this lecture, we will try to understand the significance of recent policy changes.  Do they constitute major structural transformations or merely smaller changes at the margins? Or is the welfare state being reconfigured into a “new welfare state” that focuses on labor market activation and social investment?

Required Reading:

  • Pontusson, Jonas. Inequality and Prosperity: Social Europe Versus Liberal America. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2005, Chapter 8.
  • Pierson, Paul. “The New Politics of the Welfare State.” World Politics 48, no. 2 (January 1996): 143-79 .
  • Korpi, Walter, and Palme, Joakim. “New Politics and Class Politics in the Context of Austerity and Globalization: Welfare State Regress in 18 Countries, 1975-95.” The American Political Science Review 97, no. 3 (August 2003): 425-46.
  • Hacker, Jacob S. “Privatizing Risk Without Privatizing Benefits: U.S. Welfare State Reform in Comparative Perspective.” American Political Science Review 98, no. 2 (2004): 243-60.

 

Supplemental Reading:

  • Häusermann, Silja. “Changing Coalitions in Social Policy Reforms: The Politics of New Scoial Needs and Demands.” Journal of European Social Policy 16, no. 1 (2006): 5-21.
  • Clayton, Richard, and Jonas Pontusson. “Welfare State Retrenchment Revisited.” World Politics 51, no. 1 (October 1998): 67-98.
  • Lewis, Jane. “A new politics for the social investment perspective.” In The Politics of the New Welfare State. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012, pp. 21-44


Lecture 6: Health Policy.
In this and each of the next three sessions, we will focus on a particular policy area.  Here the focus is on health policy, with a focus on  Germany, Sweden, and the US.  We will analyze the basic features of policy as well as the content of recent reforms aimed at controlling costs and increasing patient choices.

Required Reading:

  • Bowman, John R. Capitalisms Compared: Welfare, Work, and Business. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage/CQ Press, 2014, Chapter 2.
  • Giaimo, Susan, and Philip Manow. “Adapting the Welfare State: The Case of Health Care Reform in Britain, Germany, and the United States.” Comparative Political Studies 32 (December 1999): 967-1000.
  • Hacker, Jacob. “The Road to Somewhere: Or Why Political Scientists Who Write About Public Policy Shouldn’t Assume That They Know How to Shape It.” Perspectives on Politics 8, no. 3 (September 2010): 861-76.
  • Blomqvist, Paula. “The Choice Revolution: Privatization of Swedish Welfare Services in the 1990s.” Social Policy & Administration 38, no. 2 (April 2004): 139-55.

 

Supplemental Reading:

  • Hassenteufel, Patrick, and Bruno Palier. “Towards Neo-Bismarckian Health Care States? Comparing Health Insurance Reforms in Bismarckian Welfare Systems.” Social Policy and Administration 41, no. 6 (December 2007): 574-96.


Lecture 7: Pension Policy.
Pensions, along with health care, represent the most expensive welfare state policy area.  We will again focus on Germany and Sweden, and the US, all of whom have experienced major changes in their pension systems in recent years.

Required Reading:

  • Bowman, John R. Capitalisms Compared: Welfare, Work, and Business. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage/CQ Press, 2014, Chapter 3.
  • Barr, Nicholas, and Peter Diamond. “The Economics of Pensions.” Oxford Review of Economic Policy 22, no. 1 (2006): 15-39
  • Anderson, Karen M. “Pension Reform in Sweden: Radical Reform in a Mature Pension System.” In Ageing and Pension Reform Around the World, edited by Giuliano Bonoli and Shinkawa, . Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 2005, 94-115.
  • Hinrichs, Karl. “New Century-- New Paradigm: Pension Reforms in Germany.” In Ageing and Pension Reform Around the World, eds Giuliano Bonoli and Toshimitsu Shinkawa, . Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 2005, 47-73

 

Supplemental Reading:

  • Schultze, Isabelle, and Sven Jochem. “Germany: Beyond Policy Deadlock.” In The Handbook of West European Pension Politics, edited by Ellen M. Immergut, Karen M. Anderson, and Isabelle Schulze. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007, 661-710
  • Anderson, Karen M. “Sweden: After Social Democratic Hegemony.” In West European Pension Politics, eds Ellen M. Immergut, Karen M. Anderson. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007, 349-95.
  • Bridgen, Paul, and Traute Meyer. “The Liberalisation of the German Social Model: Public-Private Pension Reform in Germany Since 2001.” Journal of Social Policy 43, no. 1 (2014): 37-68.


Lecutre 8: Family Policy.
As a policy area characterized by “new social risks,” family policy is one of the few areas of the welfare state that has seen recent expansion.  This session will review recent policy developments, again focusing on Germany, Sweden, and the US.

Required Reading:

  • Bowman, John R. Capitalisms Compared: Welfare, Work, and Business. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage/CQ Press, 2014, Chapter 4.
  • Orloff, Ann Shola. “From Maternalism to ‘Employment for All’: State Policies to Promote Womens’ Employment Across the Affluent Democracies.” In The State after Statism, edited by Jonah Levy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006, 231-68.
  • Morgan, Kimberly. “Path Shifting of the Welfare State: Electoral Competition and the Expansion For Work-Family Policies in Western Europe.” World Politics 65, no. 1 (January 2013): 73-115.

 

Supplementary Reading:

  • Gornick, Janet, and Marcia Meyers. “Creating Gender-Egalitarian Socieites: An Agenda for Reform.” Politics & Society 36, no. 3 (September 2008): 313-49.
  • Ostner, Ilona. “Farewell to the Family as We Know It: Family Policy Change in Germany.” German Policy Studies 6, no. 1 (2010): 211-44.
  • Leira, Arnhaug. “Parenthood Change and Policy Reform in Scandinavia, 1970s-2000s.” In Politicizing Parenthood in Scandinavia, edited by Anne Lise Ellingsæter and Arnlaug Leira. Bristol: Policy Press, 2006, 27-52.


Lecture 9: Labor Markets and Labor Market Policy.
This lecture will focus on labor market changes, including the decentralization of wage setting, increased dualization of labor markets, and changes in laws and collective agreements regulating employment security.

Required Reading:

  • Bowman, John R. Capitalisms Compared: Welfare, Work, and Business. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage/CQ Press, 2014, Chapter 5.
  • Pontusson, Jonas. Inequality and Prosperity: Social Europe Versus Liberal America. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2005, Chapters 3 and 6.
  • Baccaro, Lucio, and Chris Howell. “A Common Neoliberal Trajectory: The Transformation of Industrial Relations in Advanced Capitalism.” Politics & Society 39, no. 4 (December 2011): 521-63.
  • King, Desmond, and David Rueda. “Cheap Labor: The New Politics of ‘Bread and Roses’ in Industrial Democracies.” Perspectives on Politics 6, no. 6 (June 2008): 279-97.
  • Palier, Bruno, and Kathleen Thelen. “Institutionalizing Dualism: Complementarities and Change in France in Germany.” Politics and Society 38, no. 1 (2010): 119-48.

 

Supplemental Reading:

  • Davidsson, Johan, and Patrick Emenegger. “Insider-Outsider Dynamics and the Reform of Job Security.” In The Politics of the New Welfare State, edited by Giuliano Bonoli and David Natali. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, 206-32.
  • Clasen, Jochen, and Daniel Clegg, “Adapting labor market policy to a changed social structure: the politics of “triple integration.”In The Politics of the New Welfare State, edited by Giuliano Bonoli and David Natali, 135-157. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, 135-57.
  • Wood, Stewart. “Labour Market Regimes Under Threat? Sources of Continuity in Germany, Britain, and Sweden.” In The New Politics of the Welfare State, edited by Paul Pierson. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001, 368-409.


Lecture 10: The Economic Impact of the Welfare State. 
In this session, we will examine the relationship between welfare states and economic redistribution, as well as the impact of welfare states on employment and economic growth.

Required Reading:

  • Pontusson, Jonas. Inequality and Prosperity: Social Europe Versus Liberal America. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2005, Chapters 4,5, and 7.
  • Kersbergen, Kees van, and Barbara Vis. Comparative Welfare State Politics: Development, Opportunities, and Reform. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014, Chapter 5.
  • Hay, Colin, and Daniel Wincott. The Political Economy of European Welfare Capitalism. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012, pp. 97-130.
  • Bradley, David, Evelyne Huber, Stephanie Moller, Francois Nielsen, and John D. Stephens. “Distribution and Redistribution in Postindustrial Democracies.” World Politics 55, no. 2 (January 2003): 193-228.

 

Supplemental Reading:

  • Hall, Peter A., and David Soskice. “An Introduction to Varieties of Capitalism.” In Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage, edited by Peter A. Hall and David Soskice. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001, 1-68.
  • Mares, Isabela. “Wage Bargaining in the Presence of Social Services and Transfers.” World Politics 57 (October 2004): 99-142.

 

The lecturer
John R. Bowman is Professor of Political Science at Queens College and the Graduate Center, City University of New York.  He has also been a guest researcher at the Institute for Social Research in Oslo. His research focuses on the political economy of labor markets and social policy in advanced industrial countries. His most recent book is Capitalisms Compared: Welfare, Work, and Business (2014). He is also the author of Capitalist Collective Action: Competition, Cooperation, and Conflict in the Coal Industry (1989). He has also published numerous journal articles. He serves on the editorial board of Politics & Society. His current research examines the political economy of the market for domestic labor in rich countries.

 

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Tags: Welfare State, Sociology, Political Science, Political Economy, PhD, Summer School, Social Policy, Globalization
Published Dec. 6, 2013 11:00 AM - Last modified Sep. 12, 2017 2:15 PM