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# Term 2 Vocab

### Extra Credit

Term | Definition |
---|---|

Momentum | A quantity defined as the product of the mass and velocity of an object |

Impulse | The product of force and time over which a force acts |

Impulse-Momentum Theorem | F= change in momentum divided by change in time |

Law of Conservation Momentum | The total momentum of all objects interacting with one another remains constant regardless of the nature of the forces between the objects |

Inelastic Collision | A collision in which two objects stick together completely after colliding |

Elastic Collision | A collision in which the total momentum and Kinetic Energy are conserved |

Rotational Motion | Movement in a circle or spinning |

Angle | A shape formed between two lines coming from a single point |

Arc Length | The measured distance that an arc makes up between two points |

Radius | Distance from the center of a circle to the outside edge |

Radian | The angle formed when an arc length is equal to the radius of a circle |

Revolution | A full journey around a fixed point |

Degree | A unit of measurement for angles |

Linear Displacement | The distance that has been traveled |

Angular Displacement | A change in angles |

Linear Speed | Average velocity equals change in distance divided by change in time |

Tangential Speed | Average angular speed equals change in angle divided by change in time |

Angular Speed | The rate at which an object moves through an angle |

Linear Acceleration | Change in velocity over change in time |

Tangential Acceleration | Change in angular speed divided by change in time |

Angular Acceleration | The rate of change in angular speed |

Rotational Kinematics | Applying kinematics equations to rotational problems |

Centripetal Force | The net force acting toward the center of a circle keeping an object moving in a circular path |

Centrifugal Force | The imaginary outward force felt by observers moving in a circular path |

Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation | F=Gm1m2 divided by r squared |

Universal Gravitational Constant | 6.67 x 10 to the -11 |

Orbital Velocity | The minimal velocity an object needs to maintain an orbit |

Escape Velocity | The minimal velocity needed to escape orbit |

Black Hole | Formed when the escape speed of a star exceeds the speed of light |

Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion | 1: Each planet travels in an elliptical orbit around the sun with the sun at one of the focal points 2: An imaginary line drawn from the sun to any planet sweeps out equal areas in equal time intervals 3: The square of a planet's orbital period is equal |

Center of Gravity | Point at which the mass of a body can be considered to be concentrated when analyzing translational motion |

Torque | A quantity that measures the ability of a force to rotate an object some axis |

Lever Arm | r(sin angle) or d(sin angle) |

Net Torque | All of the torque acting on an object added together |

Rotational Equilibrium | When the net torque equals zero |

Moment of Inertia | The minimum amount of torque needed to increase the rotational acceleration of an object |

Newton's 2nd Law Applied to Rotation | External torque equals moment of inertia times angular acceleration |

Angular Momentum | The product of the moment of inertia and the angular velocity |

Conservation of Angular Momentum | The angular momentum stays the same in direction and magnitude |

Translational Kinetic Energy | Is equal to half the mass times to the square root of the speed |

Rotational Kinetic Energy | Is equal to half the moment of inertia times the square of the angular velocity |

Fluid | Substance that has no definite shape |

Mass density | Equal to mass divided by volume of an object |

Buoyant force | The upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an object |

Positively buoyant | When an object's buoyant force is strong enough to make it float and the liquid's density is less than the object's |

Negatively buoyant | When an object's buoyant force is weak enough to make it sink and the object's density is greater than the fluid's |

Neutrally buoyant | When an object's density is equal to the fluid's density |

Pressure | The continuous physical pressure exerted on an object by something in contact with it |

Ideal fluid | The upward buoyant force that is acting on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid that the object displaces |

Archimedes' principle | An object completely or partially submerged in a fluid experiences an upward buoyant force equal in magnitude to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object |

Pascal's principle | Pressure placed anywhere in a fluid is transmitted equally in all directions through the fluid so that the pressure variations stay the same |

Turbulent flow | A flow with chaotic property changes |

Flow rate | The volume of fluid that passes per unit time |

Bernoulli's principle | An increase in the speed of a fluid at the same time as a decrease in pressure |

Ideal gas law | The equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas |

Temperature | The degree of heat in an object or substance |

Internal energy | The energy inside of a system |

Thermal equilibrium | When two objects are touching and do not exchange heat |

Heat | A form of energy that is a form of energy which transfers among particles of a substance through the kinetic energy |

Specific heat capacity | The amount of heat needed to changed an object's temperature by one unit |

Calorimetry | The science of measuring changes in energy of an object by measuring the heat exchanged with the surroundings |

Phase change | The transformation of an object into another state because of a transfer of heat |

Latent heat | Energy that is released or absorbed during a constant-temperature process |

System | A set of interacting parts that make up a complex whole |

Environment | The surrounding conditions |

Isovolumetric Process | Volume remains constant |

Isothermal process | The temperature does not change during expansion or compression |

Adiabatic process | No heat is added or taken away |

Cyclic process | The system starts and returns to the same thermodynamic state |

Entropy | Measure of the number of specific realizations or microstate |

First law of thermodynamics | Energy can be changed from one form to another but it cannot be created or destroyed |

Second law of thermodynamics | The state of entropy increases over time |

Hooke's Law | F=-kx |

Equilibrium position | A state of rest in which there is no resultant force on the object |

Force constant | Force divided by displacement |

Simple Harmonic Motion | Vibration about an equilibrium position in which a restoring force is proportional to the displacement from equilibrium |

Restoring Force | The force that brings the system back to equilibrium |

Amplitude | The maximum displacement from equilibrium |

Frequency | The number of cycles or vibrations per unit of time |

Wave | An oscillation accompanied by a transfer of energy through a medium |

Medium | Physical environment that through which a disturbance can be traveled |

Mechanical Wave | A wave that requires a medium through which to travel |

Pulse Wave | A wave that consists of a single traveling pulse |

Transverse Wave | A wave whose particles vibrate perpendicularly to the direction the waves are traveling |

Crest | The highest point of the wave |

Trough | The lowest point of the wave |

Wavelength | The distance between the highest point of a wave to the next |

Longitudinal Wave | A wave whose particles vibrate parallel to the direction the wave is traveling |

Compressional Wave | A shock wave that compresses the medium it is passing through |

Compression | When particles in a wave are close together and not spread out |

Rarefraction | When particles are spread out and not close together |

Interference | A phenomenon where two waves interact to form a wave that is greater, less than, or equal to the original |

Destructive Interference | When two waves form a smaller wave |

Reflection | The change in direction of an electromagnetic wave at a surface that causes it to move away form the surface |

Standing Wave | A wave pattern that results when two waves of the same frequency, wavelength, and amplitude travel in opposite directions and interfere |

Node | A point in a standing wave that maintains zero displacement |

Antinode | A point in a standing wave, halfway between two nodes, at which the largest displacement happens |

Infrasonic Wave | Sound waves with frequencies below 20 Hertz |

Ultrasonic Wave | Sound waves with frequencies above 20,000 Hertz |

Pitch | A measure of how high or low a sound is perceived to be, depending on the frequency of the sound wave |

Wave Fronts | Imaginary surface representing corresponding points of a wave that vibrate in unison |

Doppler Effect | An observed change in frequency when there is relative motion between the source of waves and an observer |

Intensity | The rate at which energy flows through a unit area perpendicular to the direction of wave motion |

Threshold of Hearing | 0 decibel |

Threshold of Pain | 120 decibel |

Decibel | A unit used to express sound intensity |

Resonance | The reinforcement or prolongation of sound waves by reflection from a surface or by the synchronous vibrating of an object |

Fundamental Frequency | The lowest frequency of a periodic waveform |

Harmonic Series | The wavelengths of the overtones of a vibrating string are 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, etc. of the string's fundamental wavelength |

Timbre | The quality of a musical sound or voice as how it is different from its intensity or pitch |

Beat | An interference pattern between two sounds of slightly different frequencies |

Reverberation | The persistence of a sound after its source has stopped |

Electromagnetic Wave | A wave consists of oscillating electric and magnetic fields, which radiate outward from the source |

Luminous Flux | Rate at which light is emitted from a source |

Illuminance | Luminous flux divided by surface area |

Virtual Image | An image from which light rays appear to diverge, even though they are not actually focused there |

Concave Spherical Mirror | A mirror whose reflecting surface is a segment of the inside of a sphere |

Real Image | An image that is formed by the intersection of light rays |

Paraxial Rays | Light rays that are very near the principle axis of the mirror and are used in ray diagrams, Rays further from the axis don't necessarily intersect after reflecting from a concave mirror |

Convex Spherical Mirror | A mirror whose reflecting surface is an outward curved segment of a sphere |

Three Primary Pigment | Magenta, cyan, and yellow |

Three Primary Color | Red, green, and blue |

Linear Polarization | The alignment of electromagnetic waves in such a way that the vibrations of the electric fields in each of the waves are parallel to each other |

Refraction | The binding if a wave front as the wave front passes between two substances in which the speed of the wave differs |

Index of Refraction | The ratio of speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in a given transparent medium |

Snell's Law | n1sinO1=n2sinO2 |

Lens | A transparent object that refracts light rays |

Converging Lens | Thick in the middle and thin at the edges |

Diverging Lens | Thin in the middle and thick at the edges |

Total Internal Reflection | The complete reflection that takes place within a substance when the angle of incidence of light striking the surface boundary is greater than the critical angle |

Critical Angle | The angle of incidence at which the refracted light makes an angle of 90 degrees with the normal |