The emergence of transnational street militancy
Street-based militant groups on the far right usually emerge within nation-states and only rarely operate transnationally. However, over the past decade, there have been two notable exceptions to this rule in Europe: The Nordic Resistance Movement, originating in Sweden; and Generation Identity, originating in France. Both groups are regularly described as some of the most influential of their kind but have received limited academic attention and are often portrayed rather crudely by the media. Thus, to inform future research, policy-making, and preventive work, this article outlines the ideological foundation of each group, traces their national origins and transnational evolution, compares their ideologies, strategies, organization, and types of action, and discusses how government and local authorities can deal with militant protest groups in a way that discourages violence and extremism, while at the same time safeguarding liberal democratic principles.