This article discusses the democratic implications of third country incorporation for the EU and for third countries. The more the EU transforms sovereignty in an open and inclusive manner, the greater the scope for third country presence, participation and influence. For the EU, the greater the presence and influence of third countries, the more pressing the democratic incongruence. For third countries, the better included and the more they participate, the less incongruent their affiliation, and the more similar to members they become. These considerations depend on how the EU structures its relations with third countries and the nature of the EU's political order. It is in the EU's internal market and flanking areas that the pooling and sharing of sovereignty is the most pronounced. The conundrum facing third countries and the EU is that the internal market is central to the EU's constitution as a political system.
John Erik Fossum
The EU and Third Countries: Consequences for Democracy and the Political Order
Journal of Common Market Studies, 2022.