The Nordic Economies 1945-1980
This paper gives a succinct analysis of post-war economic governance in the Nordic countries, seen against the concept of a Nordic model.
ARENA Working Paper 06/2000 (html)
It is often claimed that in the postwar period, one can discern a Nordic Model of socio-economic development. The model was based on a capitalist economic system, but incarnates political concerns for social equality. It is a specific version of the mixed economy: an economy managed by political forces with a strong commitment to the welfare of the broad masses, favouring goals such as full employment, an egalitarian income distribution, and general social citizenship through universal pension schemes and provision of social services. The model was marked by strong domestic consensus, high levels of organization (of both labour, capital and agriculture), and low levels of social conflict: a Nordic version of organized capitalism. Towards the end of the period, there was also greater equality between the sexes, and high employment rates for women. This paper evaluates to what extent the Nordic Model captures post-war developments in the Nordic countries; we will focus here on similarities as well as differences between their respective modes of governance.