Europe's Hybrid Foreign Policy

In the concluding article of the special issue of the Journal of Common Market Studies editors Mai'a K. Davis Cross and Ireneusz Pawel Karolewski draw main conclusions on the EU's role in the Russia-Ukraine crisis. They present the main findings on the basis of the contributors' assessments to the special issue.


The article presents conclusions of this Special Issue. It first summarizes the empirical findings of the individual contributions to this Special Issue in terms of whether EU power was enabled or constrained in response to the crisis. Second, the article synthesizes these findings to advance some overarching arguments about the EU as an actor in this crisis, and the types of power that were evident in this case. Third, it examines the significance of the study overall, and highlights some key policy implications. Finally, the article takes a broader perspective, and suggests that this framework is valuable more generally for understanding how various crises might impact the EU as a foreign policy actor.

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Mai'a K. Davis Cross and Ireneusz Pawel Karolewski

The EU's Power in the Russia–Ukraine Crisis: Enabled or Constrained?

Journal of Common Market Studies, special issue 'Europe's Hybrid Foreign Policy', vol. 55 (1), 2017, pp. 137-152

DOI: 10.1111/jcms.12446

Published Sep. 19, 2016 1:35 PM - Last modified Jan. 28, 2022 9:00 PM