This paper discusses the varying degree of implementation and compliance with international norms, taking EU and EFTA legislation as centre of analysis. Looking closer at the form of resolution when international norms conflict with national law, it is found that domestic traditions and political culture have considerable bearing on the efficiency of implementation - more so than any power of enforcement at the European level.
This paper considers the Commission's use of national regulatory agencies in implementation of EU law. On the basis of a case study of the IMPEL network, an informal forum of coordination between national environmental authorities, it is argued that such networks may enhance effectiveness as well as inter-institutional conflict on EU and national level.
Strengthening of European integration has also had administrative implications, such as the development of a networked-administrative system where national agencies serve simultaneously the Commission and national authorities. The paper discusses the development of such a structure of cross-cutting cleavages and loyalties, focusing on the case of the Danish IT and Telecom Agency.
Gitte Hyttel Nørgård