Analysing the implications of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights, this paper argues that the Charter represents a culmination of the EU as a rights-based entity. Effects of this formalisation will be manifest in the EU's external relations - that is, towards applicant countries as well as in the common foreign and security policy.
ARENA Working Paper 18/2002 (html)
Agustín José Menéndez
What is the normative basis of a common European voice in foreign affairs? The article traces EU legitimacy in the consistent promotion of human rights, carrying normative power as well as an increasingly solid basis in international law.
Janne Haaland Matlary
What is the relative weight of bargaining and arguing in the formation of EU foreign policy? Based on empirical data, this paper lends credence to the deliberative claim that there is more to negotiation than give and take; states may change their set of preferences by way of a learning process where even small actors may be pivotal.