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EUMARGINS investigates experiences of young adult immigrants in seven urban-metropolitan areas in seven different European countries: Norway (Oslo), Sweden (Gothenburg), the United Kingdom (London), Italy (Genoa), France (Metz/Nancy), Spain (Barcelona) and Estonia (Tallinn). Briefly, the research project seeks to find out what it is that hinders inclusion of young adult immigrants in some European countries, and what it is that opens up for it.
The project lasts for 3 years; from October 2008 to October 2011.
During the past 20 years, Sweden has had an annual immigration of more than 50,000 people. It is estimated that the number of foreign-born people in Sweden will increase. By the year 2014, about 14.5 per cent will be foreign-born and in 2050 about 18 per cent (SCB 2005). These numbers stress the need for research and better knowledge on integration processes. The Swedish EUMARGINS team is located in Gothenburg, and is interviewing young adult immigrants from different parts and places of the city. See glimpses from the various localities.
Barcelona is the capital city of Catalonia, and the urban context of Spain in which EUMARGINS study inclusion and exclusion of young adult immigrants. About 18 % of the population in the city of Barcelona are immigrants. There are as many as 165 different nationalities in the 10 districts and 73 neighbourhoods of Barcelona. Ciutat Vella district, the former medieval city and now the city centre, has the highest percentage of foreigners (40 %).
The last decade and a half has seen perhaps the most intense phase of migration in Britain’s history with some 2.3 million migrants entering the country, even more than in the mid twentieth century when colonial citizen migrants settled in Britain. These population movements have been distinctly youthful in nature. According to the Home Office figures 43% of registered Eastern European migrant workers in the UK are between 18-24 years of age. The EUMARGINS research team in the United Kingdom are based in London, and interviewing young adults living in this city that is often described as amongst the world’s most ‘super diverse cities’. In fact it is claimed that Britain’s capital is the most culturally diverse city in the world with more languages spoken than in any other global city. Joseph (Congo), Charlynne (Dominica) and 'African Queen' from Ethiopia are among the young adults that have been interviewed in London. Follow the links and read their stories.
Immigrants and descendants constituted 10, 6 % of Norway’s population in 2009; the share is in the middle of the European range. More than two thirds of the immigrant population is 'non-Western', and it is these groups that receive most attention both from researchers and the general public. EUMARGINS is collecting data about young adults immigrants living in Oslo; the capital with nearly 590 000 inhabitants, and the place in which the majority of Norway’s immigrant population is living. When looking at children and youth, more than one third of the population are non-Western immigrants. EUMARGINS’ focus is however upon young adult immigrants with all kinds of country backgrounds. Fatima, Jengar and Haile are three representatives of the Norwegian context. Follow the links to read their stories.
Italy became a country of immigration later than other European countries, and when it happened the Italian society was not prepared to become a country of destination. Sudden, unwanted immigration flows has prevented Italy since the late ’80s to produce a coherent system of norms and laws that would have been able to respond to both Italian residents' the and immigrant population demands, needs and expectations. At the present stage, Italy is facing a dramatic situation with illegal migration coming from the east and south shore of the Mediterranean.
People with immigrant background constitute approx. 30% of Estonia’s population; in the capital Tallinn the proportion is higher (40%). Most are ethnic Russians, the other ethnic groups also use extensively Russian as their mother tongue. This immigrant community was formed during the period of Soviet Union when accelerated forced industrialisation took place based on a largely immigrant labour force.
Immigration, due to French colonial history, isn’t an easy subject: it sometimes appears to be difficult to simply distinguish domestic migration from foreign one (as e.g. Algerians were considered French nationals if born before 1963, etc.), and the law prohibiting racial discrimination is making it illegal to take account of ‘ethnic’ features, ideally placing the French people as a whole, without concerns of differences.
Our project is guided by several a priori hypotheses, some of which can be tested by the statistics we are reviewing, others of which can partly be tested by our qualitative data (but not tested in a strong sense of the word, such as is possible when using statistics). Our approach to the qualitative material will be that of analytical induction (Becker 1979), meaning that we will look for patterns in our material, as well as testing these by searching for negative cases. In the following paragraph, we will present some of these a priori hypotheses which are guiding our analysis of the datamaterial:
EUMARGINS seeks to identify and determine principle determinants of social exclusion that affect young immigrants in the seven cities. This will be pursued by exploring a series of specific objectives and sub-objectives. In this section, we specify the research objectives that guide this project.
The art of comparison always involves establishing shared generalisations about the nature of the social world. These sociological premises provide a logical structure for what then is being compared. In the following, some descriptions and facts are given. These apply to all of the seven EUMARGINS' research sites.
In line with the projects’ methodological framework, an extensive secondary data collection and analysis will be conducted in the first phase of the project. The results of this first stage of the project will be published in a book that discusses the European conditions for inclusion and exclusion of young adult immigrants. Relevant contextual conditions within the seven countries will be identified, including the different political, juridical, historical, economic and social factors relevant for understanding the inclusion and exclusion of young adult immigrants. Collecting and analyzing prior research on migration, integration and youth is equally an important task of this phase, and finally the country specific information collection will set the ground for a cross-cutting analysis among all seven participant countries.
Migration into and within the Europe in the 21st century is best understood not just as a single event in a person’s life. Analysts need a perspective which identifies the complex set of socio-economic processes and phenomena which influence human mobility. The changing significance of national borders within an increasingly globalised world means that migration can no longer be understood merely by the application of analytical terms such as ‘push-pull’ factors. New typologies of migrant types are needed, as are theoretical approaches and methodologies which enable researchers to ‘capture’ the complex social realities of migration and integration.
The researchers of EUMARGINS will collect a great set of information concerning young immigrants' experiences. The qualitative part of the project is a combination of a biographical and an ethnographical research design. Recruitment of informants and data collection will take place from January 2009 to September 2010.
EUMARGINS' researcher Professor Les Back was keynote speaker at the Conference 'YOUTH 2010: Identities, Transitions and Cultures' which took place at the University of Surrey from Tuesday 6 July to 8 July 2010. In his talk, Les Back shared some findings from EUMARGINS.
The Aftenposten article that portrayed EUMARGINS’ research on inclusion and exclusion in Europe on April 16th 2010, was followed by a comment on April 24th, written by two masterstudents in cultural psychology. On May 18th, an answer to this comment written by EUMARGINS' project coordinator Katrine Fangen, together with the research assistants Brit Lynnebakke and Erlend Paasche, was published in the same newspaper, clarifying some of the main issues of the first presentation. Read their response article below.
On 11th of May, project coordinator Katrine Fangen will give a lecture at the seminar-series "New genders - Different Claims". The lecture is being held at the Centre for Inter-Disciplinary Gender research at the University of Oslo, Gaustadalléen 30 D, room 420. It starts at 1.15pm and ends at 3.30pm
On 24th of February 2010, Professor Les Back from the London-based EUMARGINS Research team participated in the 'Multicultural Dialogues Conference' at the London School of Economics. His talk 'The New Hierarchies of Belonging' was based upon EUMARGINS research data.
On January 20 and 21, 2010, representatives for all the seven national teams of EUMARGINS met in Tallinn in Estonia for a 2-days project meeting. A main theme for the meeting was planning of the forthcoming analytical process of the 30 interviews with young adults of immigrant backgrounds from seven contexts, all together a collection of more than 200 in-depth interviews. The research group will write a book that includes the voices of this large variety of people with different immigrant background residing in Europe.
Our project's first book will be available in June this year. Please view a description of the content below.
From April 28 to 29 EUMARGINS is having a project meeting in Nancy in France. The meeting is hosted by our French partner institution AROFE.
Coordinator Katrine Fangen presented EUMARGINS for the research advisors at the Faculty of Humanities at the University of Oslo. Title of presentation: 'Challenges and possibilities in an EU-project'
Coordinator Katrine Fangen presented EUMARGINS at the post doctoral-programme in nursing science, University of Oslo. The presentation focused on the application period, negotiation and kick-off of the project.